State of Alaska - AK

State of Alaska
Flag of Alaska Seal of Alaska
Nickname(s): The Last Frontier
Motto(s): "North to the Future"
Official language(s) English
Capital Juneau
Largest city Anchorage
Abbreviations AK US-AK
Web site
Alaska (IPA: [əˈlæskə], Russian: Аляска) is a state of the United States of America, located in the extreme northwest portion of the North American continent. It is the largest U.S. state in terms of area (by a substantial margin), along with being one of the wealthiest and most racially diverse.

The area that became Alaska was purchased from Russian interests on October 18, 1867, with the territory becoming the 49th state of the U.S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" is derived from the Aleut Alaskax, alternately spelled Alyeska, meaning "Land that is not an island."

Alaska is one of two U.S. States not bordered by another state, Hawaiʻi being the other. It is the only non-contiguous state in North America; about 500 miles (800 km) of Canadian territory separate Alaska from Washington State. Alaska is thus an exclave of the United States that is part of the continental U.S. but is not part of the contiguous U.S. (The other three exclaves of the United States are the Northwest Angle of Minnesota, Point Roberts, Washington, and Alburgh, Vermont.) Alaska is also the only state whose capital city is accessible only via ship or air. No roads connect Juneau to the rest of the state.

The state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia, Canada to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, and Chukchi Sea to the west, and the Beaufort Sea and the Arctic Ocean to the north.

Alaska is the largest state in the United States in terms of land area at 570,380 square miles (1,477,277 km²), over twice as large as Texas, the next largest state. If a map of Alaska were superimposed upon a map of the 48 contiguous states, Alaska would overlap Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, New Mexico and Colorado [1], and if the state's westernmost point were superimposed on San Francisco, California, its easternmost point would be in Jacksonville, Florida. Alaska also has more coastline than all of the contiguous U.S. combined. It is larger than all but 18 sovereign nations.

Near Little Port Walter in Southeast Alaska.One scheme for describing the state's geography is by labeling the regions:

South Central Alaska is the southern coastal region and contains most of the state's population. Anchorage and many growing towns, such as Palmer, and Wasilla, lie within this area. Petroleum industrial plants, transportation, tourism, and two military bases form the core of the economy here.
The Alaska Panhandle, also known as Southeast Alaska, is home to many of Alaska's larger towns including the state capital Juneau, tidewater glaciers and extensive forests. Tourism, fishing, forestry and state government anchor the economy.
The Alaska Interior is home to Fairbanks. The geography is marked by large braided rivers, such as the Yukon River and the Kuskokwim River, as well as Arctic tundra lands and shorelines.
The Alaskan Bush is the remote, less crowded part of the state, encompassing 380 native villages and small towns such as Nome, Bethel, Kotzebue and, most famously, Barrow, the northernmost town in the United States.
The northeast corner of Alaska is covered by the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, which covers 19,049,236 acres (77,090 km²). Much of the northwest is covered by the larger National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska, which covers around 23,000,000 acres (93,100 km²) million acres. The Arctic is Alaska's most remote wilderness. A location in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska is 120 miles (190 km) miles from any town or village, the geographic point most remote from permanent habitation in the USA.

With its numerous islands, Alaska has nearly 34,000 miles (54,720 km) of tidal shoreline. The island chain extending west from the southern tip of the Alaska Peninsula is called the Aleutian Islands. Many active volcanoes are found in the Aleutians. For example, Unimak Island is home to Mount Shishaldin, a moderately active volcano that rises to 9,980 feet (3,042 m) above sea level. The chain of volcanoes extends to Mount Spurr, west of Anchorage on the mainland.

One of North America's largest tides occurs in Turnagain Arm just south of Anchorage. Tidal differences can be more than 35 feet (10.7 m). (Many sources say Turnagain has the second-greatest tides in North America, but it has since been shown that several areas in Canada have larger tides, according to an Anchorage Daily News article dated 6/23/03.[2])

Alaska is home to 3.5 million lakes of 20 acres (8 ha) or larger [3]. Marshlands and wetland permafrost cover 188,320 square miles (487,747 km²) (mostly in northern, western and southwest flatlands). Frozen water, in the form of glacier ice, covers some 16,000 square miles (41,440 km²) of land and 1,200 square miles (3,110 km²) of tidal zone. The Bering Glacier complex near the southeastern border with Yukon, Canada, covers 2,250 square miles (5,827 km²) alone.

The Aleutian Islands cross longitude 180°, so Alaska can be considered the easternmost state as well as the westernmost. Alaska and, especially, the Aleutians are one of the extreme points of the United States. The International Date Line jogs west of 180° to keep the whole state, and thus the entire continental United States, within the same legal day.

According to an October 1998 report by the United States Bureau of Land Management, approximately 65% of Alaska is owned and managed by the U.S. federal government as national forests, national parks, and national wildlife refuges. Of these, the Bureau of Land Management manages 87 million acres (350,000 km²), or 23.8% of the state. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.

Of the remaining land area, the State of Alaska owns 24.5%; another 10% is managed by thirteen regional and dozens of local Native corporations created under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Various private interests own the remaining land, totaling less than 1%.

Alaska is administratively divided into "boroughs," as opposed to "counties." The function is the same, but whereas some states use a three-tiered system of decentralization — state/county/township — most of Alaska only uses two tiers — state/borough. Owing to the state's low population density, most of the land is located in the Unorganized Borough which, as the name implies, has no intermediate borough government of its own, but is administered directly by the state government. Currently (2000 census) 57.71 percent of Alaska's land area has this status; however, its population comprises only 13.05 percent of the state's total. For statistical purposes the United States Census Bureau divides this territory into census areas. Anchorage merged the city government with the Greater Anchorage Area Borough in 1971 to form the Municipality of Anchorage, containing the city proper, and the bedroom communities of Eagle River, Chugiak, Peters Creek, Girdwood, Bird, and Indian. Fairbanks, on the other hand, has a separate borough (the Fairbanks North Star Borough) and municipality (the City of Fairbanks).

The Alaska Community Database System provides a wide range of community-based information and data for planning, policy-making, and technical assistance decisions. This comprehensive interactive database system presents information of the most frequently asked questions for each community in Alaska, including a community’s location, population, taxes, climate, history, culture, demographics, utilities, schools, health care, economy, transportation, and local contacts.

Users can obtain community information through direct links to rural community data in detailed or summary form, custom data queries features, capital project information from different agencies for all Alaskan communities, download a current directory of Municipal Officials, and view community photos. Customized queries can be viewed online or downloaded into a Microsoft Excel file and automatically sent via e-mail to your personalized e-mail accounts.

The climate in Juneau and the southeast panhandle is best described as a "cooler version of Seattle". It is a mid-latitude oceanic climate (Koppen climate classification Cfb) in the southern sections and a subarctic oceanic climate (Koppen Cfc) in the northern sections. On an annual basis, this is both the wettest and warmest part of Alaska with milder temperatures in the winter and high precipitation throughout the year. Juneau averages over 50 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation a year, while other areas receive over 275 inches (6,990 mm).[4] This is also the only region in Alaska in which the average daytime high temperature is above freezing during the winter months.

The climate in south central Alaska, with Anchorage as a typical city, is mild by Alaskan standards. This is due in large part to its proximity to the coast. While it does not get nearly as much rain as the southeast of Alaska, it does get more snow, although days tend to be clearer here. On average, Anchorage receives 16 inches (406 mm) of precipitation a year, with around 75 inches (1,905 mm) of snow, although there are areas in the south central which receive far more snow. It is a subarctic climate (Koppen Dfc) due to its short, cool summers though.

The climate of Western Alaska is determined in large part by the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska. It is a subarctic oceanic climate in the southwest and a continental subarctic climate farther north. The temperature is somewhat moderate considering how far north the area is. This area has a tremendous amount of variety, especially when considering precipitation. The northern side of the Seward Peninsula is technically a desert with less than 10 inches (250 mm) of precipitation annually, while some locations between Dillingham and Bethel average around 100 inches (2,540 mm) of precipitation.[4]

The climate of the interior of Alaska is best described as extreme and is the best example of a true subarctic climate. Some of the hottest and coldest temperatures in Alaska occur around the area near Fairbanks. The summers can have temperatures reaching into the 80s°F (near 30°C), while in the winter, the temperature can fall below −60°F (-52°C). Precipitation is not much in the Interior, often less than 10 inches (250 mm) a year, but what precipitation falls in the winter tends to stay the entire winter.

The highest and lowest recorded temperatures in Alaska are both in the Interior. The highest is 100°F (38°C) in Fort Yukon on June 27, 1915,[5][6] tied with Pahala, Hawaii as the lowest high temperature in the United States.[7][8] The lowest Alaska temperature is −80°F (-64°C) in Prospect Creek on January 23, 1971,[5][6] one degree above the lowest temperature recorded in North America (in Snag, Yukon, Canada).[9]

The climate in the extreme north of Alaska is what would be expected for an area north of the Arctic Circle. It is an Arctic climate (Koppen ET) with long, very cold winters and short, cool summers. Even in July, the average low temperature is barely above freezing in Barrow, at 34°F (2°C).[10] Precipitation is light in this part of Alaska, with many places averaging less than 10 inches (250 mm) per year, mostly in the form of snow which stays on the ground almost the entire year.

State of Alaska symbols and information
Capital: Juneau
Population: 626,932
Area Code: 907
Bordering States: None
State Flower: wild/native Forget-Me-Not, adopted by the Territorial Legislature in 1917. It is a perennial that is found throughout Alaska, from Hyder to the Arctic Coast, and west to the Aleutians.
State Bird: Willow Ptarmigan, adopted by the Territorial Legislature in 1955. It is a small (15-17 inches), arctic grouse that lives among willows and on open tundra and muskeg. Plumage is brown in summer, changing to white in winter. The Willow Ptarmigan is common in much of Alaska.
State Song: "Alaska's Flag"
State Tree: Sitka Spruce, adopted by the Alaska (AK) Legislature in 1962.
State Fish: King Salmon, adopted 1962.
State Gem: Jade, adopted 1968.
State Mineral: Gold, adopted 1968.
State Sport: Dog Mushing, adopted 1972.
State Marine Mammal: Bowhead Whale, adopted 1983.
State Fossil: Woolly Mammoth, adopted 1986.
State Insect: Four-spot skimmer dragonfly, adopted 1995.
State Land Mammal: Moose, adopted 1998.
State Motto: North to the Future
State Flag: the Big Dipper and North Star on a Field of Blue. Designed in 1926 by 13-year-old Alaska Native Bennie Benson, the flag was adopted for official State use in 1959. Bennie won a $1,000 scholarship and a watch in the flag design contest.

History of Alaska
Alaska was first inhabited by people who came across the Bering Land Bridge. Eventually, Alaska became populated by the Inupiaq, Inuit and Yupik Eskimos, Aleuts, and a variety of Native American groups. Most, if not all, of the pre-Columbian population of the Americas probably took this route and continued further south and east. (see Models of migration to the New World)

In this 1860 map, Russian America (Alaska) was to the west of British America (Canada).The first written accounts indicate that the first Europeans to reach Alaska came from Russia. Vitus Bering sailed east and saw Mt. St. Elias. Alaska became a Russian colony in 1744, but the first Russian settlement, Nikolaevsk on Kodiak Island, was founded only in 1784 by Grigory Shelikhov. The Russian-American Company hunted sea otters for their fur. The colony was never very profitable, because of the costs of transportation. Only 3 Russian settlements in Alaska ever existed: Nikolaevsk, Alaska, populated by Old Believers in 1968; Kenai, Alaska, and Soldotna, Alaska.

Spaniards explored the coast and made some settlements during the 18th century. Remains of this early period are Spanish names such as Cordova and Valdez.

The news of the British North America Act, 1867, was nervously received in Washington, DC. It would create, on July 1, 1867, "one dominion under the name of Canada", and this led to expressions of "grave misgivings on the establishment of a monarchical state to the north" in what Canadians then called "the republic to the south". (See McNaughton's Short History of Canada.) U.S. Secretary of State William Seward thus urged, and the United States Senate thus approved, the treaty authorizing the purchase of Alaska from Imperial Russia for US$7,200,000 on April 9, 1867. The United States took possession and the American flag was raised over Alaska on October 18, which is commemorated as Alaska Day.

Russia still used the Julian Calendar in 1867, and the world had not yet been divided into standard time zones; thus, there was no International Date Line, and the day began in the morning instead of starting at midnight. So, while the American day now ends with sunset in western Alaska, the Russian day then started with sunrise in "eastern" Alaska. Thus, Friday, October 6, 1867, the day before the physical transfer of ownership, was followed by Friday, October 18, 1867—which was Saturday, October 7, 1867 in Russia. The change in date was due to America bringing the Gregorian Calendar to Alaska, while the lack of change in day resulted from Alaska's shift from being the starting point of the Russian day to being the ending point of the American day.

The purchase was unpopular in the United States, where it became known as "Seward's Folly" or "Seward's Icebox". Alaska celebrates the purchase each year on the last Monday of March, calling it Seward's Day.

Supposedly, the first American administrator of Alaska was Polish immigrant Włodzimierz Krzyżanowski. However, the Anchorage Daily News was unable to find any conclusive information to support or disprove this claim.[11]

Upon purchase, the area was called the Department of Alaska. Between 1884 and 1912 it was called the District of Alaska. Alaska was granted territorial status in 1912.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the Alaska Statehood Act on July 7, 1958, and Alaska formally became a state on January 3, 1959.

The Good Friday Earthquake on March 27, 1964, one of the most powerful earthquakes in recorded history at magnitude 9.2, struck 120 km (85 miles) east of Anchorage. A total of 131 Alaskans lost their lives, most of them from the resultant tsunami that destroyed two coastal towns and several native villages on the south coast.

In 1976, the people of Alaska amended the state's constitution, establishing the Alaska Permanent Fund. The fund invests a portion of the state's mineral revenue, including revenue from the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System, "to benefit all generations of Alaskans." In March 2005, the fund's value was over $30 billion.

Prior to 1983, the state lay across four different time zones—Pacific Standard Time (UTC -8 hours) in the southeast panhandle, a small area of Yukon Standard Time (UTC -9 hours) around Yakutat, Alaska–Hawaii Standard Time (UTC -10 hours) in the Anchorage and Fairbanks vicinity, with the Nome area and most of the Aleutian Islands observing Bering Standard Time (UTC -11 hours). In 1983 the number of time zones was reduced to two, with the entire mainland plus the inner Aleutian Islands going to UTC -9 hours (and this zone then being renamed Alaska Standard Time as the Yukon Territory had several years earlier (circa 1975) adopted a single time zone identical to Pacific Standard Time), and the remaining Aleutian Islands were slotted into the UTC −10 hours zone, which was then renamed Hawaii–Aleutian Standard Time.

Over the years, various vessels have been named USS Alaska, in honor of the state.

World War II
During World War II, two of the outer Aleutian Islands — Attu, and Kiska — were occupied by Japanese troops.

Six months after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese aircraft struck at U.S. Army and Navy installations at Dutch Harbor on Amaknak Island. In the evening of June 3 1942, Kate (Nakajima B5N) bombers from the carriers Junyō and Ryūjō attacked Dutch Harbor. Two days of aerial bombardment left over one hundred civilians and servicemen dead and wounded; barracks, fuel tanks, and other structures set ablaze.

On 6-7 June, 1942, the Japanese followed the Dutch Harbor raid with an invasion of American soil. After months of reconnaissance, they landed on Kiska and Attu Islands in the Western Aleutians, over 1600 kilometers (994 miles) from Dutch Harbor. On Kiska, they took a small Naval weather crew captive; on Attu, they took the whole village hostage, later shipping them back to Japan as prisoners of war.

boroughs and census areas in Alaska

Alaska Population Density MapHistorical populations
Census Pop. %±
1950 128,643 –
1960 226,167 75.8%
1970 300,382 32.8%
1980 401,851 33.8%
1990 550,043 36.9%
2000 626,932 14.0%
As of 2005, Alaska has an estimated population of 663,661, which is an increase of 5,906, or 0.9%, from the prior year and an increase of 36,730, or 5.9%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 36,590 people (53,132 births minus 16,542 deaths), and an increase due to net migration of 1,181 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 5,800 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 4,619 people.

With a population of 626,932, according to the 2000 U.S. census [12], Alaska is ranked 48th out of the 50 States. But ranked by population density, Alaska is the least densely populated at 2.849 people per square kilometer (1.1 per square mile), with the next nearest ranking state, Wyoming, at 13.208 (5.1 per square mile), and the most densely populated, New Jersey, at 2937.92 people per square kilometer (1,134.4 per square mile).

For purposes of the federal census, the state is divided into artificial divisions defined geographically by the United States Census Bureau for statistical purposes only.

The center of population of Alaska is located approximately 64.37 kilometers (39.96 miles) east of Anchorage. [13].

Most populous cities
City 2010 projection Gains since 2000 Percent growth
Anchorage 289,803 + 29,520 11%
Fairbanks 133,524 + 2,200 6%
Juneau 31,263 + 552 2%
Wasilla 11,473 + 6,004 110%
Palmer 9,307 + 4,773 102%
Sitka 9,137 + 302 4%
Kenai 7,986 + 1,044 13%
Bethel 7,053 + 1,582 23%
Ketchikan 6,898 -1,024 -13%
Homer 6,772 + 2,836 58%
Demographics of Alaska (csv)
By race White Black AIAN Asian NHPI
AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native - NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
2000 (total population) 75.43% 4.46% 19.06% 5.24% 0.88%
2000 (Hispanic only) 3.42% 0.33% 0.45% 0.16% 0.06%
2005 (total population) 74.71% 4.72% 18.77% 5.90% 0.88%
2005 (Hispanic only) 4.32% 0.38% 0.48% 0.19% 0.05%
Growth 2000-2005 (total population) 4.85% 12.03% 4.27% 19.23% 5.35%
Growth 2000-2005 (non-Hispanic only) 3.49% 11.30% 4.02% 18.96% 5.86%
Growth 2000-2005 (Hispanic only) 33.56% 21.02% 14.52% 27.89% -1.95%

Race and ancestry
Multiracial/Mixed-Race people are the third largest group of people in the state, totaling 6.9% of the population or 44,426. The largest ancestry groups in the state are: German (16.6%), Alaska Native or American Indian (15.6%), Irish (10.8%), British (9.6%), American (5.7%), and Norwegian (4.2%). Alaska has the largest percentage of American Indians of any state.

The vast, sparsely populated regions of northern and western Alaska are primarily inhabited by Alaska Natives, who are also numerous in the southeast. Anchorage, Fairbanks, and other parts of south-central and southeast Alaska have many whites of northern and western European ancestry. The Wrangell-Petersburg area has many residents of Scandinavian ancestry and the Aleutians contain a large Filipino population. Most of the state's black population lives in Anchorage. Fairbanks also has a sizable black population as well.

As of 2000, 85.7% of Alaska residents age 5 and older speak only English at home and 5.2% speak Native American languages. Spanish speakers make up 2.9% of the population, followed by Tagalog speakers at 1.5% and Korean at 0.8%.

More than 90 languages are spoken today in Alaska, including 22 which are indigenous to Alaska. The indigenous languages, known locally as Native languages, belong to two major language families.

Eskimo-Aleut family
Eskimo family
Central Alaskan Yup'ik
Central Siberian Yupik (Yuit)
Alutiiq (Pacific Gulf Yupik)
Inuit family
Athabaksan-Eyak-Tlingit family
Athabaskan family (spec. Northern Athabaskan)
Dena’ina (Tanaina)
Deg Hit’an (Ingalik, Deg Xinag)
Holikachuk (Innoko)
Upper Kuskokwim (Kolchan)
Lower Tanana (Tanana)
Upper Tanana
Gwich’in (Kutchin)
Haida language
Coast Tsimshian
Coast Tsimshian is not technically indigenous to Alaska, the Coast Tsimshian people having moved north from British Columbia in the historic period. Nevertheless it is usually grouped with the other Native languages.

As the homeland of two of North America's major language families, Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dené (Athabaskan-Eyak-Tlingit), Alaska has been described as the crossroads of the continents, providing evidence for the recent settlement of North America via the Bering land bridge.

According to the 2000 U.S. Census, the most widely spoken languages in Alaska, apart from English, are Spanish (2.88%), Yupik (2.87%), Tagalog (1.54%), and Iñupiaq (1.06%) [14].


Interior of a typical Orthodox church in AlaskaChristian – 78%
Protestant – 62%
Baptist – 11%
Lutheran – 8%
Methodist – 6%
Pentecostal – 2%
Quaker – 1%
Eastern Orthodox – 8%
Roman Catholic – 7%
Episcopal – 1%
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints – 4%
Buddhist – 10%
Not religious/agnostic – 7%
Other religions – 1%
Notable is Alaska's relatively large Eastern Orthodox Christian population, a result of early Russian colonization and missionary work among indigenous Alaskans. Alaska also has the largest Quaker population (by percentage) of any state. Also, as of 1994, there are 3,060 Jews in Alaska. [15] Jehovah's Witnesses stands at a little less than 2,400.

The state's 2005 total gross state product was $39.9 billion. Its per-capita GSP for 2005 was $60,079, 3rd in the nation. Alaska's economy relies heavily on petroleum extraction, with more than 80 percent of the state's revenues derived from this industry. Alaska's main export product (excluding oil and natural gas) is seafood, primarily salmon, cod, pollock and crab. Agriculture represents only a fraction of the Alaska economy. Agricultural production is primarily for consumption within the state and includes nursery stock, dairy products, vegetables, and livestock. Manufacturing is limited, with most foodstuffs and general goods imported from elsewhere. Employment is primarily in government and industries such as natural resource extraction, shipping, and transportation. Military bases are a significant component of the economy in both Fairbanks and Anchorage. Its industrial outputs are crude petroleum, natural gas, coal, gold, precious metals, zinc and other mining, seafood processing, timber and wood products. There is also a growing service and tourism sector. Tourists have contributed to the economy by supporting local lodging.

Alaska's economy is heavily dependent on increasingly expensive diesel fuel for heating, transportation, electric power and light. Though wind and hydroelectric power are abundant and underutilized, proposals for state-wide energy systems (e.g. with special low-cost electric interties) were judged uneconomical (at the time of the report, 2001) due to low (<$0.50/Gal) fuel prices, long distances and low population.[16] The cost of a gallon of gas in urban Alaska today is usually $0.30-$0.60 higher than the national average; prices in rural areas are generally significantly higher but vary widely depending on transportation costs, seasonal usage peaks, nearby petroleum development infrastructure and many other factors.

The cost of goods in Alaska has long been higher than in the contiguous 48 states. This has changed for the most part in Anchorage and to a lesser extent in Fairbanks, where the cost of living has dropped somewhat in the past five years. Housing costs within the city of Fairbanks have remained almost unchanged (Example: one room, one bath apartment for $600-$700 a month). Outside the city limits, they are significantly lower (Example: 12x16 cabin $200-$400 a month).

Federal Government employees, namely United States Postal Service (USPS) workers, receive a Cost Of Living Allowance usually set at 25% of base pay because, while the cost of living has gone down, it is still one of the highest in the country.

The introduction of big-box stores in Anchorage, Fairbanks (Wal-Mart in March of 2004), and Juneau also did much to lower prices. However, rural Alaska suffers from extremely high prices for food and consumer goods, compared to the rest of the country due to the relatively limited transportation infrastructure. Many rural residents come in to these cities and purchase food and goods in bulk from warehouse clubs like Costco and Sam's Club. Some have embraced the free shipping offers of some online retailers to purchase items much more cheaply than they could in their own communities, if they are available at all.

Alaska is one of only six states with no state sales tax and one of seven states that do not levy an individual income tax. To finance state government operations, Alaska depends primarily on petroleum revenues. The Department of Revenue Tax Division reports regularly on the state's revenue sources. The Department also issues an annual overview of its operations, including new state laws that directly affect the tax division.

While Alaska has no state sales tax, 89 municipalities collect a local sales tax, with a range of between 1 percent and 7 percent. Typical sales tax rates are 3 to 5 percent. Other types of local taxes levied include raw fish taxes, hotel, motel, and B&B “bed” taxes, severance taxes, liquor and tobacco taxes, gaming (pull tabs) taxes, tire taxes and fuel transfer taxes. A percentage of revenue collected from certain state taxes and license fees (such as petroleum, aviation motor fuel, telephone cooperative) is shared with municipalities in Alaska.

Property taxes are relatively low, with only 25 of 161 incorporated municipalities or boroughs in the state assessing property taxes.[citation needed] Fairbanks has one of the highest property taxes in the state as no sales or income taxes are assessed in the Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB). A sales tax for the FNSB has been voted on many times, but has yet to be approved, leading law makers to increase taxes dramatically on other goods such as liquor and tobacco. The average per capita property tax paid in all municipalities, excluding oil and gas properties, was US$999 (2003 data).[citation needed]

Alaska is arguably the least-connected state in terms of road transportation. The state's road system covers a relatively small area of the state, linking the central population centers and the Alaska Highway, the principal route out of the state through Canada. The state capital, Juneau, is not accessible by road, which has spurred several debates over the decades about moving the capital to a city on the road system. One unique feature of the road system is the Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel, which links the Seward Highway south of Anchorage with the relatively isolated community of Whittier. The tunnel held the title of the longest road tunnel in North America (at nearly 2.5 miles [4 km]) until completion of the 3.5 mile (5.6km) Interstate 93 tunnel as part of the "Big Dig" project in Boston, Massachusetts. The tunnel retains the title of the longest combination road and rail tunnel in North America.

The Alaska Railroad runs from Seward through Anchorage, Denali, and Fairbanks to North Pole, with spurs to Whittier and Palmer (locally known as "The Railbelt"). The railroad is famous for its summertime passenger services but also plays a vital part in moving Alaska's natural resources, such as coal and gravel, to ports in Anchorage, Whittier and Seward. The Alaska Railroad is one of the few remaining railroads in North America to use cabooses in regular service and offers one of the last flag stop routes in the country. A stretch of about 60 miles of track along an area inaccessible by road serves as the only transportation to cabins in the area.

Most cities and villages in the state are accessible only by sea or air. Alaska has a well-developed ferry system, known as the Alaska Marine Highway, which serves the cities of Southeast and the Alaska Peninsula. The system also operates a ferry service from Bellingham, Washington up the Inside Passage to Skagway. In the Prince of Wales Island region of Southeast, the Inter-Island Ferry Authority also serves as an important marine link for many communities, and works in concert with the Alaska Marine Highway. Tourist sea travel is also popular on Alaska cruises. Cities not served by road or sea can only be reached by air, accounting for Alaska's extremely well-developed Bush air services—an Alaskan novelty.

Anchorage itself, and to a lesser extent Fairbanks, are serviced by many major airlines. Air travel is the cheapest and most efficient form of transportation in and out of the state. Anchorage recently completed extensive remodeling and construction at Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport to help accommodate the upsurge in tourism (in 2000-2001, the latest year for which data are available, 2.4 million total arrivals to Alaska were counted, 1.7 million via air travel; 1.4 million were visitors[17][18]).

However, regular flights to most villages and towns within the state are commercially challenging to provide. Alaska Airlines is the only major airline offering in-state travel with jet service (sometimes in combination cargo and passenger Boeing 737-200s) from Anchorage and Fairbanks to regional hubs like Bethel, Nome, Kotzebue, Dillingham, Kodiak, and other larger communities as well as to major Southeast and Alaska Peninsula communities. The bulk of remaining commercial flight offerings come from small regional commuter airlines like: Era Aviation, PenAir, and Frontier Flying Service. The smallest towns and villages must rely on scheduled or chartered Bush flying services using general aviation aircraft such as the Cessna Caravan, the most popular aircraft in use in the state. Much of this service can be attributed to the Alaska bypass mail program which subsidizes bulk mail delivery to Alaskan rural communities. The program requires 70% of that subsidy to go to carriers who offer passenger service to the communities. But perhaps the most quintessentially Alaskan plane is the Bush seaplane. The world's busiest seaplane base is Lake Hood, located next to Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, where flights bound for remote villages without an airstrip carry passengers, cargo, and lots of items from stores and warehouse clubs. Alaska has the highest number of pilots per capita of any U.S. state: out of the estimated 663,661 residents, 8,550 are pilots, or about one in every 78.[19] It is interesting to note that Alaska has the longest runway in the world, as the entire length of the Richardson Highway is designated an emergency landing strip.

Another Alaskan transportation method is the dogsled. In modern times, dog mushing is more of a sport than a true means of transportation. Various races are held around the state, but the best known is the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, a 1,150-mile (1850 km) trail from Anchorage to Nome. The race commemorates the famous 1925 serum run to Nome in which mushers and dogs like Balto took much-needed medicine to the diphtheria-stricken community of Nome when all other means of transportation had failed. Mushers from all over the world come to Anchorage each March to compete for cash prizes and prestige.

In areas not served by road or rail, primary summer transportation is by all-terrain vehicle and primary winter transportation is by snowmobile, or "snow machine," as it is commonly referred to in Alaska.

Law and government
Presidential elections results Year Republican Democratic
2004 61.07% 190,889 35.52% 111,025
2000 58.62% 167,398 27.67% 79,004
1996 50.80% 122,746 33.27% 80,380
1992 39.46% 102,000 30.29% 78,294
1988 59.59% 119,251 36.27% 72,584
1984 66.65% 138,377 29.87% 62,007
1980 54.35% 86,112 26.41% 41,842
1976 57.90% 71,555 35.65% 44,058
1972 58.13% 55,349 34.62% 32,967
1968 45.28% 37,600 42.65% 35,411
1964 34.09% 22,930 65.91% 44,329
1960 50.94% 30,953 49.06% 29,809
Main article: Government of Alaska
Alaska is often described as a Republican-leaning state with strong Libertarian tendencies. Local political communities often work on issues related to land use development, fishing, tourism, and individual rights. It is very important to note that, as of 2004, well over half of all registered voters choose "Non-Partisan" or "Undeclared" as their affiliation [20], despite recent attempts to close primaries.

Alaska Natives, while organized in and around their communities, are often active within the Native corporations which have been given ownership over large tracts of land, and thus need to deliberate resource conservation and development issues.

In presidential elections, the state's electoral college votes have been almost always won by a Republican nominee. Only once has Alaska supported a Democratic nominee, when it supported Lyndon B. Johnson in the landslide year of 1964, although the 1960 and 1968 elections were close. No state has voted for a Democratic presidential candidate fewer times. President George W. Bush won the state's electoral votes in 2004 by a margin of 25 percentage points with 61.1% of the vote. The city of Juneau stands out as a stronghold of the Democratic party.

When the United States Congress, in 1957 and 1958, debated the wisdom of admitting it as the 49th state, much of the political debate centered on whether Alaska would become a Democratic or Republican-leaning state. Conventional wisdom had it that, with its penchant for new ideas and dependence on federal government funds for basic needs, it would become a Democratic stronghold, about which Republicans, and the Republican Administration of Dwight Eisenhower had reservations. However, those fears proved unfounded. After an early flirtatious period with liberal politics, the political climate of Alaska changed quickly once petroleum was discovered and the federal government came to be widely viewed as interfering in state affairs. Still, despite its libertarian leanings, the state regularly takes in more federal money than it gives out, a fact that can be attributed at least partially to its equal representation in the United States Senate.

The Alaska Legislature consists of a 20-member Senate, whose members serve four-year terms, and 40-member House of Representatives, who serve 2-year terms. It has been dominated by conservatives, generally Republicans. Likewise, recent state governors have been mostly conservatives, although not always elected under the official Republican banner. Republican Wally Hickel was elected to the office for a second term in 1990 after jumping the Republican ship and briefly joining the Alaskan Independence Party ticket just long enough to be reelected. He subsequently officially rejoined the Republican fold in 1994.

Alaska's members of the U.S. Congress are all Republican. U.S. Senator Ted Stevens was appointed to the position following the death of U.S. Senator Bob Bartlett in December of 1968, and has never lost a re-election campaign since. As the longest-serving Republican in the Senate (sometimes nicknamed "Senator-For-Life"), Stevens has been a crucial force in gaining federal money for his state.

Until his resignation from the U.S. Senate after being elected governor in 2002, Republican Frank Murkowski held the state's other senatorial position and, as governor, appointed his daughter, State Representative Lisa Murkowski as his successor (under massive public pressure, the State legislature amended the constitution to eliminate gubernatorial appointments in the future). She won a full six-year term on her own in 2004.

Alaska's sole U.S. Representative, Don Young, was re-elected to his 17th consecutive term, also in 2004. His seniority in House makes him one of the most influential Republican House members.

December 4, 2006, Sarah Palin was sworn in as the first woman and youngest ever Governor of Alaska. Her running mate was Lieutenant Governor Sean Parnell. Palin is the former two term mayor of Wasilla, Alaska.

Political parties
Alaska Republican Party
Alaska Democratic Party
Alaska Republican Moderate Party
Alaskan Independence Party
Alaska Libertarian Party
Alaska Green Party

Important cities and towns
Alaska's most populous city is Anchorage, home to 260,283 people (as of 2000), 225,744 of whom live in the urbanized area. It ranks third in the List of U.S. cities by area, behind two other Alaskan cities. Sitka ranks as America's largest city by area, followed closely by Juneau.

The fishing town of Sitka.Cities of 100,000 or more people

Towns of 10,000-100,000 people

Towns of fewer than 10,000 people
North Pole
Delta Junction

25 richest places in Alaska
Further information: Alaska locations by per capita income
Ranked by per capita income:

1. Halibut Cove, Alaska $89,895
2. Chicken, Alaska $65,400
3. Edna Bay, Alaska $58,967
4. Sunrise, Alaska $56,000
5. Lowell Point, Alaska $45,790
6. Petersville, Alaska $43,200
7. Coldfoot, Alaska $42,620
8. Port Clarence, Alaska $35,286
9. Hobart Bay, Alaska $34,900
10. Red Dog Mine, Alaska $34,348
11. Adak, Alaska $31,747
12. Meyers Chuck, Alaska $31,660
13. Pelican, Alaska $29,347
14. Ester, Alaska $29,155
15. Chignik Lagoon, Alaska $28,941
16. Four Mile Road, Alaska $28,465
17. Healy, Alaska $28,225
18. Moose Pass, Alaska $28,147
19. Cube Cove, Alaska $27,920
20. Womens Bay, Alaska $27,746
21. Skagway, Alaska $27,700
22. Nelson Lagoon, Alaska $27,596
23. Valdez, Alaska $27,341
24. McKinley Park, Alaska $27,255
25. Attu Station, Alaska $26,964

The Alaska Department of Education and Early Development administers many school districts in Alaska.

In addition, the state operates a boarding school called Mt. Edgecumbe High School in Sitka.

43% of the population attends or attended college.

Colleges and universities
University of Alaska System
University of Alaska Anchorage — Anchorage
Kenai Peninsula College — Homer, Seward, and Soldotna
Kodiak College — Kodiak
Matanuska-Susitna College — Palmer
Prince William Sound Community College — Valdez
University of Alaska Fairbanks — Fairbanks
University of Alaska Southeast — Juneau
Alaska Bible College — Glennallen
Alaska Pacific University — Anchorage
Charter College — Anchorage
Ilisagvik College — Barrow
Sheldon Jackson College — Sitka
St. Herman's Orthodox Theological Seminary — Kodiak

Miscellaneous topics

Social issues
Alaska has long had a problem with alcohol use and abuse. Many rural communities in Alaska have outlawed its import. "Dry", "wet", and "damp" are terms describing a community's laws on liquor consumption. This problem directly relates to Alaska's high rate of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) as well as contributing to the high rate of suicides. This is a controversial topic for many residents.

Alaska has also had a problem with "brain drain" as many of its young people, including most of the highest academic achievers, leave the state upon graduating high school. While for many this functions as a sort of walkabout, many do not return to the state. The University of Alaska has been successfully combating this by offering four-year scholarships to the top 10 percent of Alaska high school graduates, the Alaska Scholars Program.

Domestic abuse and other violent crimes are also at notoriously high levels in the state; this is in part linked to alcohol abuse.

Alaska is also the only state in the union to allow legal possession of marijuana. An adult may legally possess four ounces of marijuana for personal use. Noy v. Alaska, 83 P.3d 538, 543 (2003).

The four main libraries in the state are the Alaska State Library in Juneau, the Elmer E. Rasmuson Library in Fairbanks, the Z. J. Loussac Library in Anchorage, and the UAA/APU Consortium Library, also in Anchorage. Alaska is one of three states (the others are Delaware and Rhode Island) that does not have a Carnegie library.

Alaskans eat many diverse things, mostly consisting of seafood and other leading products, such as fruits. An example is Akutaq, the Eskimo ice cream, consisting of reindeer fat and seal oil and some berries. Alaska is known for their desserts and their beverages.

Notable Alaskans
Historical and contemporary Alaskans
Clarence L. Andrews customs official and an information officer, recognized authority on the history and culture of the Alaskan territory in early 1900's, photographer, author
Alexandr Baranov (1746-1819) trader, public official, Russia
Edward Lewis "Bob" Bartlett (1904–1968) was the territorial delegate to the US Congress from 1944 to 1958, and was elected as the first senior U.S. Senator in 1958 and re-elected to a full 6-year term in 1960 and again in 1966. There are streets, buildings, a high school and even the first state ferry, named for him.
Benny Benson, designed state flag at age 13, Chignik
Vitus Bering (1681-1741) explorer
Charles E. Bunnell educator
Jimmy Doolittle (1896-1993) (James Harold "Jimmy" Doolittle) served with great distinction as a general in the United States Army Air Forces during the Second World War, earning the Medal of Honor as the commander of the Doolittle Raid.
Wyatt Earp (1848-1929) lived in Alaska from 1897 to 1901; he built the Dexter Saloon in Nome, Alaska with C.E. Hoxsie.
William A. Egan (1914-1984) served two years as an "Alaska-Tennessee Plan" Senator in Washington D.C. prior to becoming the first Governor of Alaska, and remains the only Alaskan Governor to serve three terms.
Carl Ben Eielson pioneer pilot
Vic Fischer emeritus professor and one of two remaining signers of the Alaska Constitution
Henry Ernest Gruening (1886–1974) was appointed Governor of the Territory of Alaska in 1939, and served in that position for fourteen years. He was elected to the United States Senate in 1958 and re-elected in 1962 and served until 1969. One of two Senators who voted against Tonkin Gulf Resolution at beginning of the heaviest period of the Vietnam War.
Jay Hammond (1922–2005) was Governor during the building of the Alaska Pipeline and established the Alaska Permanent Fund, providing Alaskans with essentially free money. He is regarded as somewhat of a hero because of this. He was also governor during passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act and effectively served to moderate associated issues within the state among disparate interest groups ranging from conservationists to natives to pro-development interests.
B. Frank Heintzleman territorial governor
Walter Hickel former governor
Sheldon Jackson (1834-1909) an American missionary and educator, the first federal superintendent of public instruction for Alaska, and bearer of the first reindeer to Alaska from Siberia. The Sheldon Jackson Museum and College are located in Sitka.
Joseph Juneau (1836–1899) and Richard Harris (1833-1907), prospectors and founders of what is now Alaska's capital city, Juneau.
Austin Eugene "Cap" Lathrop industrialist
Ray Mala (1906-1952) is the first Native American movie star and the only film star the state of Alaska has yet to produce. He starred in MGM's Oscar-winning classic Eskimo/Mala the Magnificent filmed entirely on location in Alaska. His son Dr. Ted Mala became the first Alaska native male to become a Doctor. Dr. Mala served on Governor Walter J. Hickel's cabinet (1990) as Commissioner of Health and Social Services.
Eva McGown (1883-1972), Fairbanks hostess and chorister
John Muir (1838-1914), naturalist, explorer, and conservationist who detailed his amazing journeys in Alaska Territory and was instrumental, through his friendship with President Theodore Roosevelt, in protecting substantial acreage of forest wilderness and wildlife preserves in Alaska.
William Oefelein (b. 1965) Alaska's first astronaut. His first mission, STS-116. Commander Oefelein received his commission as an Ensign in the United States Navy from Aviation Officer Candidate School in Pensacola, Florida in 1988.
Sarah Palin (b. 1964) Alaska's youngest Governor and first female Governor
Elizabeth Peratrovich (1911-1958) a Native (Tlingit) Alaskan who fought for equality of Native Alaskans and is honored with "Elizabeth Peratrovich Day."
George Sharrock (1910–2005) moved to the territory before statehood, eventually elected as the mayor of Anchorage and served during the Good Friday Earthquake in March 1964. This was the most devastating earthquake to hit Alaska and it sunk beach property, damaged roads and destroyed buildings all over the south central area. Sharrock, sometimes called the "earthquake mayor," led the city's rebuilding effort over six months.
Soapy Smith, Jefferson Randolph Smith, "Alaska's Outlaw." The infamous confidence man and early settler, who ran the goldrush town of Skagway, Alaska, 1897-98.
Fran Ulmer was the first woman elected to statewide office—she became Lieutenant Governor in 1994.
Joe Vogler (1913-1993) founder of the Alaskan Independence Party
Ferdinand von Wrangell (1797-1870) explorer, president of the Russian-American Company in 1840-1849.

Artistic and literary Alaskans
Sydney Laurence (1865-1940) painter
Fredrick Machetanz (1908-2002) painter
Eustace Ziegler (1881-1969) painter
Ted Lambert (1905-1960) painter
C. "Rusty" Heurlin (1895-1986) painter
Marie "Rie" Muñoz (1921- ) painter, artist, writer
Dale DeArmond (1914- ) woodblocker, writer
Nancy Taylor Stonington painter
Jon Van Zyle painter
Byron Birdsall painter
Barbara Lavallee painter
Ray Troll artist
Arnie Weimer fine artist
John Hoover woodworker
Gail Niebrugge painter
John Fehringer painter
Bill Fikes Jr. artist, cartoonist, first published "digital graphics" in Alaska (1967)
Mark Kelley, photographer
Michio Hoshino photographer
Virgil F. Partch cartoonist
Jewel Kilcher (b. 1974), singer-songwriter. Though born in Utah, she was raised on a farm in Homer.
Kevin Johansen (b. 1964 in Fairbanks), Latin pop musician.
Margaret Elizabeth Bell author
Velma Wallis author
Robert "Bob" H. Armstrong biologist, author
Rita M. O'Clair biologist, author
Dana Stabenow author
Nick Jans journalist, author
Ann Fox Chandonnet poet, author, journalist
Nora Marks Dauenhauer author
John Meade Haines poet, writer
Tom Bodett commentator, author
Kim Heacox author
Linda McCarrison poet
Tom Sexton (b. 1940) poet
Robert W. Service (1874-1958), Alaskans' most well-loved poet, though he actually lived slightly over the border in the Canadian Yukon Territory.
Jack London (1876-1916), author most famous for his Yukon-based novels, The Call of the Wild and White Fang.
Megan Lindholm AKA Robin Hobb (b. 1952), author of a number of fantasy literature series.

Athletic Alaskans
Carlos Boozer (b. 1982), a power forward for the NBA's Utah Jazz. An All-American while playing high school basketball in Juneau, Boozer rose to national fame during his collegiate career at Duke University. He helped lead the team to an NCAA Men's National Championship in 2001. Boozer left Duke prior to his senior year and was selected in the second round (35th overall) of the 2002 NBA draft by the Cleveland Cavaliers. In the midst of a major controversy with the team surrounding his free agency, Boozer signed with the Utah Jazz in 2004.
Susan Butcher (1954-2006), dog-musher, second female winner of the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race (1986), and four-time overall winner ('86, '87, '88 and '90). She remains arguably the sport's most popular figure in the world as a result of her many accomplishments.
Matthew Carle (b. 1984 in Anchorage), a defenceman for the NHL's San Jose Sharks.
Shawn Chacón (b. 1977 in Anchorage), a right-handed Major League Baseball starting pitcher for the Pittsburgh Pirates.
Mario Chalmers (b. 1986 in Anchorage) is a guard for the University of Kansas men's basketball team.
Ty Conklin (b. 1976 in Anchorage), a backup goaltender for the Buffalo Sabres. He established several school records during his career with the NCAA's University of New Hampshire. In his final year there in 2001, Conklin was named First Team All-American and was a finalist for the Hobey Baker Award, which goes to the NCAA's top men's ice hockey player.
Rosey Fletcher (b. 1975 in Anchorage), snowboarder and U.S. Winter Olympian (1998, '02, and '06). She won the bronze medal for the U.S. in the women's parallel giant slalom event in 2006.
Scott Gomez (b. 1979 in Anchorage), a center for the New Jersey Devils. Drafted 27th overall in the 1998 NHL Entry Draft, he was the first Latino player in the NHL, and won the Calder Trophy as the league's Rookie of the Year in 2000. Gomez helped the Devils win the Stanley Cup in 2000 and 2003. During the 2004-05 NHL lockout he played for the ECHL's Alaska Aces minor league team. He was a member of the U.S. men's hockey team at the 2006 Winter Olympics.
Sam Hoger (b. 1980 in Eagle River), a mixed martial arts fighter. He is most notable for his appearance on the first season of The Ultimate Fighter, a reality television series produced by the Ultimate Fighting Championship and broadcast on Spike TV.
DeeDee Jonrowe (b. 1953), dog-musher and Iditarod female record-holder for fastest time. She gained fame for her completion of the race in 2003 just three weeks after completing chemotherapy for breast cancer.
Jeff King (b. 1956), dog-musher, four-time winner of the Iditarod, and one-time winner of the U.S./Canadian Yukon Quest Sled Dog Race.
Trajan Langdon (b. 1976 in Anchorage), a shooting guard for CSKA Moscow of the Euroleague. A three-time Alaska Player of the Year during his years with East Anchorage High School, Langdon gained fame in the U.S. while playing collegiately at Duke University. There he earned the nickname "the Alaskan Assassin" for his proficiency at three-point shooting. He became the first Alaska-born player in the NBA after being taken 11th overall in the 1999 NBA draft by the Cleveland Cavaliers. After three years with the team, Langdon signed with the Euroleague in 2002.
Hilary Lindh (b. 1969 in Juneau), alpine skier, four-time National Championship winner, and U.S. Winter Olympian (1988, '92, and '94). She won the silver medal in the women's downhill event in 1992.
Tommy Moe (b. 1970), alpine skier, five-time National Championship winner, and U.S. Winter Olympian (1992, '94, and '98). He won the gold medal in men's downhill skiing and the silver medal in the men's super-G event in 1994, making him the first American male skier to win multiple medals in a single Olympics.
Josh Phelps (b. 1978 in Anchorage), a first baseman/designated hitter for the New York Yankees.
Kikkan Randall (b. 1982), nordic skier, seven-time National Champion, and two time U.S. Winter Olympian (2002, '06). She placed 3rd in the indivdual sprint at Rybinsk, Russia on January 21st, 2007, the best American women's finish in a World Cup. She also had the best ever American women's finish in the Olympics (9th place in the 2006 individual sprint).
Joe Redington, Sr. (1917-1999), dog musher and promoter. Known as the "Father of the Iditarod," he helped establish the event in 1967 and personally competed in it starting in 1974. In 2003, a memorial with a life-size bronze statue was unveiled at the Iditarod Trail Committee Headquarters in Wasilla.
Libby Riddles (b. 1956), dog-musher and first woman to win the Iditarod.
Curt Schilling (b. 1966 in Anchorage), a right-handed starting pitcher for the Boston Red Sox. He was a member of the Arizona Diamondbacks' 2001 World Series championship team, and was named co-winner of the World Series MVP Award. Schilling helped lead the Red Sox to a memorable 2004 World Series championship, the team's first since 1918. He pitched a dramatic victory in Game 6 of the 2004 American League Championship Series against the arch-rival New York Yankees, despite a severe ankle injury evidenced by a blood-stained sock.
Mark Schlereth (b. 1966 in Anchorage), a former NFL guard and current football analyst for ESPN. He is featured on the network's NFL Live show and is a regular fill-in host on ESPN Radio's Mike and Mike in the Morning program. Schlereth was selected in the tenth round (#263 overall) of the 1989 NFL Draft by the Washington Redskins. He played twelve NFL seasons: six with Washington (1989-1994), and six with the Denver Broncos (1995-2000). He was a member of three Super Bowl championship teams.
Rick Swenson (b. 1950), dog-musher and five-time (winningist) winner of the Iditarod.
Dave Williams (b. 1979 in Anchorage), a left-handed starting pitcher for the Pittsburgh Pirates.


More Good Stuff


Weddings are our specialty

Corporate Events

We can help to make your corporate event the moral booster and "thank you" that you want.

Kid Parties

Your kids grow up so fast. Let them have fun while they are young.