State of Connecticut - CT

Connecticut is a state in the New England region of the United States, located in the northeastern part of the country. It has the highest per capita income in the country, and ranks 4th in median household income. Connecticut is also one of the most densely populated states in the nation and has strong economic connections to New York; part of Connecticut belongs to the New York metropolitan area. Connecticut was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. Residents of Connecticut are sometimes referred to as Nutmeggers.

Further information: Geology of Connecticut
Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York State, on the north by Massachusetts, and on the east by Rhode Island. The state capital is Hartford, and the other major cities include New Haven, New London, Norwich, Stamford, Waterbury, Danbury and Bridgeport. In all, there are a total of 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut. There is an ongoing civic pride and economic competition between Hartford and New Haven, which stems back to the days when the two cities shared the state's capital, and even back to the rivalry between New Haven Colony and Connecticut Colony.

Bear Mountain, highest peak in Connecticut Highest point in Connecticut on slope of Mount Frissell, as seen from Bear MountainThe highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. [1]

The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound, Connecticut's outlet to the Atlantic Ocean.

Further information: List of Connecticut rivers
Erroneous inscription at summit of Bear MountainThe state, although small, has regional variations in its landscape and culture from the wealthy estates of Fairfield County's "Gold Coast" to the rolling mountains and horse-farms of the Litchfield Hills of northwestern Connecticut. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New Haven, then northwards to Hartford, as well as further up the coast near New London. Many towns center around a small park, known as a "green," (such as the New Haven Green). Near the green may stand a small white church, a town meeting hall, a tavern and several colonial houses. Forests, rivers, lakes, waterfalls and a sandy shore add to the state's beauty.

The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the distinctive Southwick Jog/Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5 mile (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut slightly west of the center of the border. Somewhat surprisingly, the actual origin of this anomaly is not absolutely certain, with stories ranging from surveyors who were drunk, attempting to avoid hostile Native Americans, or taking a shortcut up the Connecticut River; Massachusetts residents attempting to avoid Massachusetts' (even then) high taxes for the low taxes of Connecticut; Massachusetts' interest in the resources represented by the Congamond Lakes which lie on the border of the jog; and the need to compensate Massachusetts for an amount of land given to Connecticut due to inaccurate survey work.[2] [3] [4] Perhaps the only suggested reason which can be safely ruled out is that the jog is necessary to prevent Massachusetts from sliding out into the Atlantic Ocean. In any event, the dispute over the border retarded the development of the region, since neither state would invest in even such basic amenities as schools for the area until the dispute had been settled.

The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing Greenwich, Stamford, New Canaan, and Darien, housing some of the wealthiest residents in the world. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 1600s, culminating with New York giving up its claim to this area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield, Connecticut to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New York.[5]

Areas maintained by the National Park Service include: Appalachian National Scenic Trail; Quinebaug & Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor; and Weir Farm National Historic Site

Connecticut lies in a Humid Continental Climate, somewhat tempered by its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. Winters are Cold, with average temperatures of 31°F (-2c) in the southeast and 23°F (-6c) in the northwest in January. Snowfall averages 25-100" (64-254 cm) across the state- higher in the northwest. Spring has variable temperatures with frequent rainfall. Summer is hot and very humid across the state, with average highs in New London of 81°F (27c) and 87°F (31c) in Windsor Locks. Fall months are mild, and bring foliage across the state in October and November. During Hurricane season, Tropical Cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually, and can occasionally be very severe. Tornadoes are not unheard of, but are somewhat rare. [1] NOAA National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved on October 24, 2006.

Main article: History of Connecticut
The name "Connecticut" comes from the Mohegan Indian word "Quinnehtukqut" meaning "Long River Place" or "Beside the Long Tidal River." The first European explorer in Connecticut was the Dutch explorer Adriaen Block. After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (Named Versche Rivier by the Dutch) and built a fort near present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" (Dutch: Huys de Hoop). The first English settlers came in 1633. They were Puritans from Massachusetts, led by the Puritan reverend Thomas Hooker. They founded the Connecticut Colony. Colonies were also established at Old Saybrook and New Haven, which later became part of Connecticut. Historically important colonial settlements included: Windsor (1633), Wethersfield (1634), Saybrook (1635), Hartford (1636), New Haven (1638), and New London (1646). Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the English settlers, they left their fort in 1654. Its first constitution, the "Fundamental Orders," was adopted on January 14, 1639, while its current constitution, the third for Connecticut, was adopted in 1965. The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn." Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is "The Constitution State."

Connecticut is the fifth of the original thirteen states.

According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter". There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" - Cotton Mather in 1702. "Connecticutensian" - Samuel Peters in 1781. "Nutmegger" is sometimes used. It is derived from the nickname, the Nutmeg State, based on the practice of the Connecticut peddlers who traveled about selling nutmegs, possibly fake ones as a scam. There is not, however, any nickname that has been officially adopted by the State for its residents.[6]

The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to a 1650 agreement with the Dutch, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from the west side of Greenwich Bay "provided the said line come not within 10 miles [16 km] of Hudson River." On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea," i.e. the Pacific Ocean. This probably added confusion to the early forefathers because the Pacific Ocean is located on the west coast of the United States. Agreements with New York, the "Pennamite Wars" with Pennsylvania over Westmoreland County, followed by Congressional intervention, and the relinquishment and sale of the Western Reserve lands brought the state to its present boundaries.

Historical populations
year Population


1790 237,946
1800 251,002
1810 261,942
1820 275,248
1830 297,675
1840 309,978
1850 370,792
1860 460,147
1870 537,454
1880 622,700
1890 746,258
1900 908,420
1910 1,114,756
1920 1,380,631
1930 1,606,903
1940 1,709,242
1950 2,007,280
1960 2,535,234
1970 3,031,709
1980 3,107,576
1990 3,287,116
2000 3,405,565
Connecticut Population Density MapAs of 2005, Connecticut has an estimated population of 3,510,297, which is an increase of 11,331, or 0.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 104,695, or 3.1%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people.

6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.

In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut were classified as "rural". The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, it was only 12.3%.

Race and ancestry
Demographics of Connecticut (csv)
By race White Black AIAN Asian NHPI
AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native - NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
2000 (total population) 87.09% 10.46% 0.73% 2.83% 0.13%
2000 (hispanic only) 8.31% 1.04% 0.14% 0.07% 0.04%
2005 (total population) 86.09% 10.88% 0.76% 3.56% 0.15%
2005 (hispanic only) 9.74% 1.09% 0.16% 0.07% 0.05%
Growth 2000-2005 (total population) 1.89% 7.19% 6.59% 29.77% 15.41%
Growth 2000-2005 (non-hispanic only) -0.11% 7.16% 3.74% 30.12% 16.21%
Growth 2000-2005 (hispanic only) 20.87% 7.40% 18.36% 14.98% 13.68%

As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born, and 10% of the foreign-born in the state were illegal aliens (about 1.1% of the population). In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.

As of 2000, 81.7% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.4% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.6%, French at 1.6% and Polish at 1.2%.

The five largest reported ancestries in the state are: Italian (18.6%), Irish (16.6%), English (10.3%), German (9.9%), and French/French Canadian (9.9%).

Connecticut has a large Italian-American population, although residents of British, Irish, German, and other ancestries are also present, with old-stock Americans being the largest percentage of the population in the eastern part of the state. Italian is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the Irish are the largest group in Tolland county, French-Canadians the largest group in Windham county, and old stock New England Yankees are present throughout. Connecticut is the most Italian-American state percentage-wise, just above Rhode Island. Blacks and Hispanics (mostly Puerto Ricans) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Connecticut also has a sizable Polish American population, with New Britain containing the largest Polish-American population in the state.

The religious affiliations of the people of Connecticut are:

Christian – 83%
Protestant – 48%
Baptist – 10%
Episcopal – 6%
Methodist – 4%
Lutheran – 4%
Congregational/United Church of Christ – 2%
Other Protestant or general Protestant – 22%
Roman Catholic – 34%
Other Christian – 1%
Jewish – 3%
Other Religions – 1%
Non-Religious – 13%
There is a significant Jewish population in the state, concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between Greenwich and New Haven, in Greater New Haven and in Greater Hartford, especially the suburb of West Hartford. New Haven's Jewish population is now mostly suburban, but a number of synagogues and Kosher and Jewish-style restaurants/bakeries and synagogues remain in the city proper.

Recent immigration has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low.

Connecticut welcome sign being fixed as Rell takes office on July 1, 2004The total gross state product for 2004 was $187 billion. The per capita income for 2005 was $47,819, ranking first among the states [7]. There is, however, a great disparity in incomes through the state; although New Canaan has one of the highest per capita incomes in America, Hartford is one of the ten cities with the lowest per capita incomes in America. This is due to Fairfield County having become a bedroom community for higher-paid New York City workers seeking a less urban lifestyle, as well as the spread of businesses outwards from New York City having reached into southwestern Connecticut, most notably to Stamford. The state did not have an income tax until 1991, making it an attractive haven for high earners fleeing the heavy taxes of New York State, but putting an enormous burden on Connecticut property tax payers, particularly in the cities with their more extensive municipal services. As a result, the middle class largely fled the urban areas for the suburbs, taking stores and other tax-paying businesses with them, and leaving only the urban poor in the now impoverished Connecticut cities. As evident from the dichotomy in income figures described above, this problem has yet to be successfully solved. Exacerbating this problem, the state has a very high cost of living, due to a combination of expensive real estate, expensive heating for the winters, the need to import much food from warmer states, and the dependence on private automobiles for mobility.

Homes in southwestern Connecticut on the fringes of the New York City metropolitan area are quite expensive, often starting around $500,000. In this region of the state, a three-bedroom home on ¼ acre (1000 m2) might easily run about US$1 million. Although Connecticut has the highest percentage of million-dollar homes in the Northeast (and third in the country), the majority of these homes are located in the western third of the state, in the Hartford suburbs such as Avon, Simsbury and West Hartford, and the New Haven suburbs such as Orange, Cheshire, Madison, and Clinton.

The agricultural output for the state is nursery stock, eggs, dairy products, cattle, and tobacco. Its industrial outputs are transportation equipment (especially helicopters, aircraft parts, and nuclear submarines), heavy industrial machinery and electrical equipment, fabricated metal products, chemical and pharmaceutical products, and scientific instruments.

The income tax rate on Connecticut individuals is divided into two tax brackets of 3% and 5%. All wages of a Connecticut resident are subject to the state's income tax, even when the resident works outside of the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York state has higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in New York state pay no income tax to Connecticut.

Connecticut levies a 6% state sales tax on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods. Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by statute. There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions.

All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of fair market value. The maximum property tax credit is $350 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward. The maximum property tax credit will rise to $400 for tax year 2006. Connecticut does not levy an intangible personal property tax.

The Connecticut State Capitol in downtown HartfordTransportation in Connecticut is predominantly via highway. Bradley International Airport (BDL) is located in the central part of the state (15 miles (24 km) north of Hartford). Another large airport, mostly used by corporate executives and those who own private aircraft, is the Oxford Airport in western Connecticut. The airport is located 15 miles (24 km) east of Danbury and 12 miles (19 km) southwest of Waterbury. There is railway service along the coastline from New York City to Boston, including commuter rail service between New Haven and New York and a new commuter service along the river north of New Haven, with spur service running northwards to cities such as Hartford. Bus service is supplied by Connecticut Transit, owned by the Connecticut Department of Transportation. In practice, most Connecticut residents find public transportation not fully adequate for all their needs and either own a private vehicle or have access to one.

The glaciers carved valleys in Connecticut running north to south; as a result, many more roadways in the state run north to south than do east to west, mimicking the previous use of the many north-south rivers as transportation. The Interstate highways in the state are I-95 (the Connecticut Turnpike) running southwest to northeast along the coast, I-84 running southwest to northeast in the center of the state, I-91 running north to south in the center of the state, and I-395 running north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major interstate traffic arteries in Connecticut are the Merritt Parkway and Wilbur Cross Parkway, which together form State Route 15, running from the Hutchinson River Parkway in New York State parallel to I-95 before turning north of New Haven and running parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in Berlin, Connecticut. This road and I-95 were originally toll roads; they relied on a system of toll plazas at which all traffic would stop and pay an incremental fare, rather than the alternative system of providing drivers a ticket where they entered the highway and charging them when they exited. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually led to abandonment of the entire toll system in 1988, although most of the highway bonds had already been paid off by that time. Other major arteries in the state include U.S. Route 7, State Route 8, and State Route 9. See List of State Routes in Connecticut for an overview of the state's highway system.

I-95 from south of New Haven to the New York border is one of the most congested highways in the United States due to increasing population density, increasing business in the New York area, inadequate capacity and a general increase in American driving. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway. At rush hours, multiple backups tens of miles long are common, and the daily radio broadcasts of where crashes have completely blocked traffic are a fact of life for commuters in this area. As a result, commuter rail is also heavily crowded, along with parking facilities and traffic at the stations. Funds to relieve the situation, either by enhancing commuter rail, increasing highway capacity, or both, are lacking, and the problem is noted as one hindering further economic development for the state.

Law and government
See also: Administrative divisions of Connecticut
Hartford has been the sole capital of Connecticut since 1875. Prior to that, New Haven and Hartford alternated as capitals. Unlike most other states, Connecticut does not have county government; government exists at the state and municipal levels. The associated state marshal system, however, is still divided by county. The judicial system is divided, at the trial court level, into judicial districts. [8] The eight counties are still widely used for purely geographical purposes, such as weather reports. There are 169 incorporated cities and towns across the state. Most cities are coterminous with their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. There are two exceptions: City of Groton, which is a subsection of the Town of Groton and the City of Winsted in the Town of Winchester. There are also ten incorporated boroughs, nine of which provide additional services to a section of town. One, Naugatuck, is a consolidated town and borough.

The two U.S. senators representing Connecticut are Christopher J. Dodd (Democrat) and Joseph I. Lieberman (Democrat). Connecticut currently has five representatives in the U.S. House.

The supreme executive power is vested in the governor, who heads the executive branch. The current Governor of Connecticut is Her Excellency, M. Jodi Rell (Republican). There are several executive departments responsible for administering the laws of Connecticut: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Children and Families, Correction, Education, Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Information Technology, Insurance, Labor, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Utility, Revenue Services, Social Services, Transportation, Veterans Affairs. In addition to these departments, there are many other independent bureaus, offices and commissions [9]. From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. Connecticut was the first state in the United States to elect a woman as governor, Ella Grasso in 1974.

The legislature, referred to as the General Assembly, is a bicameral body consisting of an upper body, the Senate (36 senators); and a lower body, the House of Representatives (151 representatives). Before a bill can be signed into law, it must be passed by a vote of at least two thirds of each house. The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Senators and representatives, all of whom must be at least eighteen years of age, are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the President Pro Tempore presides. The Speaker of the House presides over the House; James A. Amann is the current Speaker of the House of Connecticut. The Democrats currently hold the majority in both houses of the General Assembly.

The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to that of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present an oral argument no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. The current Chief Justice is William J. Sullivan. Historically, the highest court in Connecticut was the General Assembly, and later, the Upper House, with the Governor having the title "Chief Judge". In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches. Below the Supreme Court are the Appellate Court and the Superior Courts.

Presidential elections results Year Republican Democratic
2004 43.95% 693,826 54.31% 857,488
2000 38.44% 561,094 55.91% 816,015
1996 34.69% 483,109 52.83% 735,740
1992 35.78% 578,313 42.21% 682,318
1988 51.98% 750,241 46.87% 676,584
1984 60.73% 890,877 38.83% 569,597
1980 48.16% 677,210 38.52% 541,732
1976 52.06% 719,261 46.90% 647,895
1972 58.57% 810,763 40.13% 555,498
1968 44.32% 556,721 49.48% 621,561
1964 32.09% 390,996 67.81% 826,269
1960 46.27% 565,813 53.73% '657,055
Connecticut is a generally moderate to liberal state, allotting its electoral votes to Democratic candidates in the past four Presidential elections but to Republican Presidential candidates five times in the 1970's and 1980's. The perception from outside the state, however, is that Connecticut is a liberal Democratic stronghold.

Connecticut has an unusually high number of voters who are not registered with a major party: 34% Democratic, 23% Republican, but 43% unaffiliated by party registration. Voters in the state are more supportive of fiscal conservatives than social conservatives. Many Connecticut towns show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party.

Republicans are the minority in the state legislature, but they currently hold three of the five congressional seats, while Democrats Christopher Dodd and Joseph Lieberman are Connecticut's senators. Lieberman's predecessor, Lowell P. Weicker Jr was the last Connecticut Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican, who broke with Nixon during Watergate and successfully ran for governor in 1991 as an independent, creating A Connecticut Party as his election vehicle. Before Weicker, the last Republican to represent Connecticut in the Senate was Prescott Bush from 1953-1963. Bush is the father of former president George H.W. Bush and the grandfather of President George W. Bush.

Democrats hold a registration edge in most parts of the state, especially in the cities of Hartford (the state capital), New Haven and Bridgeport.

The state's Republican-leaning areas are Litchfield County and adjoining towns in the west of Hartford County, the Naugatuck River Valley, and some of the affluent Fairfield County towns near the New York State border. The suburban towns of New Canaan and Darien in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state, the former being the hometown of conservative activist Ann Coulter. On the other hand, Westport, a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally-Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County.

Waterbury is nominally a Democratic city, but tends to favor conservative candidates. Norwalk and Stamford have favored moderate Republicans in many elections such as former Governor John G. Rowland and Congressman Chris Shays.

Pundits such as Michael Barone speculate that Connecticut voters are hesitant to give one party control of state government after the massive expansion in taxes and spending that occurred in the final years of the William O'Neill administration.

Further information: U.S. presidential election, 2004, in Connecticut

Political corruption
In recent years, Connecticut politics has been plagued by widespread corruption. Several mayors, state legislators, and government employees have been convicted and imprisoned for crimes ranging from bribery to racketeering. In 2004, Governor John G. Rowland, a Republican, was forced to resign when it was discovered he helped steer state contracts to firms that offered him gifts and free vacations. Following his resignation, he plead guilty to corruption charges and served ten months in federal prison. On the more extreme end, former Waterbury, CT Mayor Philip Giordano (R) was stripped of power in 2001 after a corruption investigation had to be cut short when phone taps unexpectedly revealed alleged sexual acts with 8- and 10-year-old minor girls and other possible pedophilia charges. In 2003, he was convicted and sentenced to 37 years in federal prison. Democrats have been convicted of corruption as well, most notably former Bridgeport Mayor Joe Ganim. The current Mayor of Bridgeport, John Fabrizi admitted to using cocaine while in office, but has stayed on.

Following Rowland's resignation, Connecticut passed a campaign finance reform bill that will ban contributions from lobbyists and state contractors in future campaigns. The measure was praised by Arizona Senator John McCain.

Over 20% of Connecticut's incorporated places are cities. Most, however, are small. Connecticut's distincive mix of many small cities with larger and smaller towns helps explain the relatively high population density.

Five of Connecticut's cities have population over 100,000:

Bridgeport: 139,529 (Census Estimate 2005: 139,008)
New Haven: 123,626 (Census Estimate 2005: 124,791)
Hartford: 121,578 (Census Estimate 2005: 124,397)
Stamford: 117,083 (Census Estimate 2005: 120,045)
Waterbury 107,271 (Census Estimate 2005: 107,902)
In addition, fifteen more cities have populations over 45,000: Norwalk, Danbury, New Britain, West Hartford, Greenwich, Bristol, Meriden, Fairfield, Hamden, Manchester, West Haven, Milford, Stratford, East Hartford, Enfield, and Middletown.

Connecticut also has several cities with populations under 45,000: Ansonia, Glastonbury, Groton, Naugatuck, New London, New Milford, Norwich, Shelton, Torrington, Trumbull, and Willimantic.

25 richest places in Connecticut
Main article: Connecticut locations by per capita income
Ranked by per capita income*:

New Canaan, Connecticut $85,459
Darien, Connecticut $77,519
Weston, Connecticut $74,817
Greenwich, Connecticut $74,346
Westport, Connecticut $73,664
Stamford, Connecticut $67,109
Wilton, Connecticut $65,806
Roxbury, Connecticut $56,769
Georgetown, Connecticut $55,029
Easton, Connecticut $53,885
Ridgefield, Connecticut $51,795
Avon, Connecticut $51,706
Groton Long Point, Connecticut $51,066
Redding, Connecticut $50,687
Woodbridge, Connecticut $49,049
Sharon, Connecticut $45,418
Fairfield, Connecticut $43,670
Lyme, Connecticut $43,347
Essex, Connecticut $42,806
Bridgewater, Connecticut $42,505
Cornwall, Connecticut $42,484
Madison Center, Connecticut $42,046
Old Lyme, Connecticut $41,386
Noank, Connecticut $41,355
Glastonbury, Connecticut $40,820

25 poorest places in Connecticut
(descending order)

Hartford, Connecticut $13,428
Conning Towers-Nautilus Park, Connecticut $14,216
Poquonock Bridge, Connecticut $14,664
Plainfield Village, Connecticut $14,836
East Brooklyn, Connecticut $15,093
Wauregan, Connecticut $15,311
Willimantic, Connecticut $15,727
Danielson, Connecticut $16,042
Bridgeport, Connecticut $16,306
New Haven, Connecticut $16,393
North Grosvenor Dale, Connecticut $16,409
Moosup, Connecticut $16,827
Windham, Connecticut $16,978
Waterbury, Connecticut $17,701
Rockville, Connecticut $17,896
Mansfield, Connecticut $18,094
New Britain, Connecticut $18,404
Bantam, Connecticut $18,442
New London, Connecticut $18,437
Plainfield, Connecticut $18,706
North Canaan, Connecticut $18,971
Jewett City, Connecticut $19,083
Putnam District, Connecticut $19,229
Sterling, Connecticut $19,679
Storrs, Connecticut, with an average per capita income of $9,947, is technically the poorest in the state, but this is only because of the high student population at the University of Connecticut, which is factored into the survey.

Connecticut is well-known as the home of Yale University, which maintains a consistent ranking as one of the world's greatest and richest universities, and has the most selective undergraduate program of any university in the United States (an 8.6% acceptance rate in 2006). Yale is one of the largest employers in the state, and its research activity has recently spun off dozens of growing biotechnology companies, which have brought in billions of dollars to the economy of New Haven and the State in general.

Connecticut is also the host of many other institutions. Additionally, the State is packed with dozens of prestigious boarding schools, such as Choate Rosemary Hall, Hotchkiss, Loomis Chaffee, and The Taft School which draw students from all over the world.

Colleges and universities

Asnuntuck Community College
Albertus Magnus College
Briarwood College
Capital Community College
Central Connecticut State University
Charter Oak State College
Connecticut College
Eastern Connecticut State University
Fairfield University
Holy Apostles College and Seminary
Middlesex Community College
Manchester Community College
Mitchell College
Northwest Connecticut Community College
Norwalk Community College
Paier College of Art
Post University
Quinnipiac University
Rensselaer at Hartford
Sacred Heart University
Saint Joseph College
Southern Connecticut State University
Trinity College
Tunxis Community College
United States Coast Guard Academy
University of Bridgeport
University of Connecticut
University of Hartford
University of New Haven
Wesleyan University
Western Connecticut State University
Yale University

Sports teams
Connecticut Sun of the Women's National Basketball Association
From 1979 to 1997, the National Hockey League had a franchise in Hartford, the Hartford Whalers. Their departure to North Carolina caused great controversy and resentment.
Minor League Hockey Teams:

Bridgeport Sound Tigers of the American Hockey League
Hartford Wolf Pack of the American Hockey League
(The Danbury Trashers of the United Hockey League have been dissolved by the league after their owner, James Galante was arrested in June 2006 on accusations that he was running a mob-related scheme to control trash hauling prices and was paying hockey team employees under the table and against league rules.)

Minor League Baseball Teams:

Connecticut Defenders Double-A Affiliate of the San Francisco Giants
New Britain Rock Cats Double-A Affiliate of the Minnesota Twins
Both of the Eastern League

Independent League Baseball Teams:

Bridgeport Bluefish of the Atlantic League
Manchester Silkworms of the New England Collegiate Baseball League
New Haven County Cutters of the Canadian-American League
Stamford Robins of the Atlantic Collegiate Baseball League
Torrington Twisters of the New England Collegiate Baseball League
Professional Cycling Teams:

Team presented by
The Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference (CIAC) is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports. Xavier High School (Middletown, CT) claimed the 2005 Class LL football championship. Other state champions in football include Staples (in Westport), Branford, Daniel Hand (in Madison), Woodland Regional (in Beacon Falls), and Hyde Leadership (in Hamden).

Famous residents, past and present
Anne Baxter, Actress ("All About Eve", "Razors Edge" "Hotel" TV Series) and grandaughter of Architect Frank Lloyd Wright, lived in Easton, Connecticut until her death in 1985
George Walker Bush, 43rd President of the United States, born in New Haven
Abacu Racey, retired racing greyhound, lives in Wethersfield
David Pogue, New York Times Technology Columnist lives in Westport
Kevin Bacon, actor, maintains a residence in Sharon.
Jeff Bagwell, professional baseball player, grew up in Killingworth
Vin Baker, former professional basketball player, born and raised in Old Saybrook
Lisa Bennett, famed trial attorney, lives in Meriden
Chris Berman, ESPN sportscaster lives in Cheshire
Michael Bolton, singer-songwriter, born in New Haven
Rico Brogna, former professional baseball player, born and raised in Watertown
Chris Browne, who draws the comic strip "Hagar The Horrible", went to school in Wilton
William F. Buckley, Jr., founder of National Review, lives in Stamford
Chris Carrabba, member of indie rock band Dashboard Confessional was born in and went to primary and secondary school in West Hartford.
Cassie, singer with hit Me & U, was born and raised in New London
Samuel Langhorne Clemens aka Mark Twain 1835-1910, author "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn", "Tom Sawyer" and many, many others, lived in Hartford from 1874 to 1891, and died at his home in Redding in 1910
Marcus Camby, professional basketball player, born in Hartford
Glenn Close, actress, born in Greenwich
Ann Coulter, author, columnist, political pundit, raised in New Canaan
Rivers Cuomo, lead singer of Weezer, was raised on an ashram and attended high school in Storrs
Bette Davis, actress maintained a home in Westport, Connecticut from the early '70s to mid '80s
Brian Dennehy, actor in many movies, has a home in Woodstock
Rob Dibble, former professional baseball player; baseball analyst, born and raised in Southington
Phil Donahue, former talk show host, lives in Westport
Chris Drury, professional hockey player, born and raised in Trumbull
Mia Farrow, actress once married to Frank Sinatra, daughter of actress Maureen O'Sullivan, resides in Bridgewater, Connecticut
50 Cent, rapper, maintains a residence in Farmington
Jose Feliciano, singer/guitarist and six-time Grammy winner, lives in Fairfield County
Dwight Freeney, professional football player, raised in Bloomfield
Michael J. Fox, actor, maintains a residence in Sharon
James Greco, CEO of Bruegger's Bagels, lives in Cheshire
Dorothy Hamill, Olympic gold medalist, born and raised in Greenwich
Rip Hamilton, plays for Detroit Pistons, went to UCONN-
Katherine Heigl, actress on hit tv series "Grey's Anatomy", was born and raised in New Canaan
Leona Helmsley, real estate maven and "Queen of Mean" maintains a 50+ acre estate in Greenwich
Katharine Hepburn (1907 – 2003) , actress, was born in Hartford and lived in Old Saybrook
Charles Ives (1874 – 1954) , American composer, was born in Danbury
Jeffery Immelt, CEO of General Electric (GE), lives in New Canaan
Craig Janney, Hockey player, was raised in Enfield.
Bruce Jenner, Olympic gold medalist, born in Newtown
Tebucky Jones, who currently plays for the New England Patriots of the NFL, lives in Farmington
Henry Kissinger, former Secretary of State, lives in Kent
Ivan Lendl, former tennis pro, maintains a residence in Litchfield
Barry Levinson, director, producer, and writer of many movies like "Rain Man", owns a house in Redding
Christopher Lloyd, actor, born and raised in Stamford
John Mayer, singer, native of Fairfield
Pedro Martinez, professional baseball player, ace pitcher for the New York Mets resides in Greenwich
Charles Peter McColough, former Chairman and CEO of the Xerox Corporation, lives in Belle Haven, Greenwich
Vince McMahon, Chairman of the WWF/WWE, lives in Greenwich
Jesse Metcalfe, actor, plays John Tucker in John Tucker Must Die, was raised in Waterford
Robert Mitchum (1917 – 1997), actor, was born in Bridgeport
Ellen Muth, actress, was born in and maintains a residence in Milford
Ralph Nader, consumer advocate and former U.S. presidential candidate, native of Winsted
Kevin Nealon, actor and comedian, born and raised in Bridgeport
Paul Newman, salad dressing guru and actor, lives in Westport
Frank Oz, actor, maintains a residence in Sharon
Carl Pavano, professional baseball player for the New York Yankees, born and raised in Southington
John Ratzenberger, actor, born in Bridgeport
Keith Richards, member of The Rolling Stones, lives in Weston
Alex Rodriguez, All-Star Third Baseman for the New York Yankees, has a home in Stamford
Bill Romanowski, former professional football player, born in Vernon
Diana Ross, singer, maintains a residence in the waterfront Belle Haven section of Greenwich
Meg Ryan actress in When Harry Met Sally grew up in Bethel
Patty Hearst Shaw, heiress of the Hearst media empire, lives in Westport
John Scofield, famous Jazz guitarist, grew up in Wilton
Jimmy Shea, Olympic gold medalist, born and raised in West Hartford
Meryl Streep, actress, maintains a residence in Washington, Connecticut
Rip Torn, actor, maintains a residence in Lakeville
The Rock, pro WWE wrestler, went to elementary school at Shepherd Glen in Hamden
Seth MacFarlane, creator of the FOX animated sitcom Family Guy was born and raised in Kent
Kyra Sedgwick, actress, maintains a residence in Sharon
Melissa Toddy, nationally-renowned Deputy Assistant Public Defender, specializes in Habeas Corpus proceedings, lives in Wethersfield
Bobby Valentine, former professional baseball player and manager, born and raised in Stamford
James Van Der Beek, actor, born and raised in Cheshire
Mo Vaughn, former professional baseball player, born in Norwalk
Diane Von Furstenberg, Fashion Designer, resides in New Milford, Connecticut with media mogul husband Barry Diller
Sam Waterston, actor in Law & Order, maintains a residence in Salisbury
Gene Wilder, actor and comedian, is a current resident of Stamford
Bruce Willis, actor in several movies, has a home in Bethel
Jack Welch, former head of General Electric lives in Fairfield
Steve Young, former professional football player; football analyst, grew up in Greenwich

Historical figures
Ethan Allen (1738–1789), early American revolutionary and guerrilla leader, was born in Litchfield
Benedict Arnold (1741–1801), early American Colonial Army Captain turned British spy was born in Norwich
Phineas T. Barnum (1810–1891), American showman, best remembered for founding Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus, was born in Bethel
Walter Camp, football coach known as the "Father of American Football", born and raised in New Haven
Samuel Colt (1814–1862), inventor of the revolving cartridge firearm, was born in Hartford
Jonathan Edwards (1703–1758),a colonial American Congregational preacher and theologian, was born in East Windsor
Nathan Hale (1755–1776), captain in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, American hero and official State Hero of Connecticut, widely considered America's first spy, was born in Coventry. Nathan Hale was hung when the British caught him spying and sending letters to George Washington during the war.
Isaac Hull (1773–1843), a Commodore in the United States Navy, was born in Derby
Charles Goodyear (1800–1860), inventor of vulcanized rubber, was born in New Haven
J. Walter Kennedy (1912–1977), first commissioner of the NBA, born and raised in Stamford
J. Pierpont Morgan (1837–1913), financier and banker, one of the wealthiest men in America at the turn of the century (1901), was born in Hartford
Israel Putnam (1718–1790), American army general who fought with distinction at the Battle of Bunker Hill during the American Revolutionary War, lived in Pomfret
Wallace Stevens (1879–1955), American Modernist poet, lived in Hartford from 1916 until his death
Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811–1896), abolitionist and writer, most famous for writing Uncle Tom's Cabin, was born in Litchfield and raised in Hartford
Mark Twain (1835–1910), humorist, novelist, writer, and lecturer, best know for writing The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, lived in Hartford and died in Redding
Noah Webster (1758–1843), lexicographer, textbook author, spelling reformer, political writer, and editor, was born in what is now known as West Hartford
Eli Whitney (1765–1825), inventor and manufacturer, created the first cotton gin in 1793, graduated from Yale College in 1792 and died in New Haven

Connecticut is the southernmost state in New England and the wealthiest state in the country per capita as well as the third smallest state in landmass. It was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution.
Due to the prominence of the aircraft industry in Connecticut in the mid-Twentieth Century, Connecticut has an official state aircraft, the F4U Corsair, and an official Connecticut Aviation Pioneer, Igor Sikorsky. In addition, the state legislature officially recognizes the claim of aircraft designer Gustav Whitehead to have had the world's first successful powered aircraft flight in Bridgeport, Connecticut, two years before the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk.
Connecticut is known officially as the Constitution State based on its colonial constitution of 1638-39. Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as the Nutmeg State. The nutmeg connection to Connecticut may come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice in New England). It is also said to come from Yankee peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers. [10]
President George W. Bush was born in New Haven, Connecticut and lived there for a short time before moving to Texas. He later attended and graduated from Yale University located in New Haven, Connecticut.
Commemorative stamps issued by the United States Postal Service with Connecticut themes include Nathan Hale, Eugene O'Neill, the whaling ship the Charles W. Morgan which is docked in Mystic Seaport, and a decoy of a broadbill duck.
Connecticut's State song is Yankee Doodle.


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