State of Illinois - IL

Illinois is the 21st U.S. state and is located in the Midwest region of the United States of America. The state is the most populous in the Midwest, and the fifth most populous in the nation. Illinois is known for its large and diverse population; its balance of rural areas, small industrial cities, vast suburbs and a great metropolis; its highly diverse economic base; and its central location that has made it a transportation hub for 150 years. It is this mixture of factory and farm, of urban and rural that makes Illinois a microcosm of the nation.

About 2,000 Native American hunters inhabited the area at the time of the American Revolution, and a small number of French villagers. American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1810s; they achieved statehood in 1818. Yankees arrived a little later and dominated the north, creating the metropolis of Chicago in the 1830s. The coming of the railroads in the 1850s made highly profitable the rich prairie farmlands in central Illinois, attracting large numbers of immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden. Northern Illinois, strongly Republican, provided major support for Illinoisans Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant during the Civil War. By 1900, factories were being rapidly built in the northern cities, along with coal mines in central and southern areas, attracting large numbers of immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was a major arsenal in both world wars; large numbers of blacks left the cotton fields of the South to come to Chicago, where they developed a famous jazz culture.

The state is named for the Illinois River which was named by French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquian tribes that thrived in the area. The word Illiniwek means "tribe of superior men."[2]

Chicago, the largest city in IllinoisMain article: Geography of Illinois
The northeastern border of Illinois is Lake Michigan. Its eastern border with Indiana is all of the land west of the Wabash River, and a north-south line above Post Vincennes, or 87° 30' west longitude. Its northern border with Wisconsin is fixed at 42° 30' latitude. Its western border with Missouri and Iowa is the Mississippi River. Its southern border with Kentucky is the Ohio River.[3] Illinois also borders Michigan, but only via a water boundary in Lake Michigan. [Nelson 1978]

Though Illinois lies entirely in the Interior Plains, it has three major geographical divisions. The first is Chicagoland, including the city of Chicago, its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. This region includes a few counties in Indiana and Wisconsin and stretches across much of northern Illinois toward the Iowa border, generally along Interstates 80 and 90. This region is cosmopolitan, densely populated, industrialized, and settled by a variety of ethnic groups. Cook County is the most populous county in the state, with over 5.3 million residents in 2004.

Southward and westward, the second major division is central Illinois, an area of mostly flat prairie. The western section (west of the Illinois River) was originally part of the Military Tract of 1812 and forms the distinctive western bulge of state. Known as the Land of Lincoln or the Heart of Illinois, it is characterized by small towns and mid-sized cities. Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, as well as educational institutions and manufacturing centers, figures prominently. Major cities include Peoria–the third largest metropolitan area in Illinois at 370,000, Springfield–the state capital, Decatur, Bloomington-Normal and Champaign-Urbana. [Nelson 1978]

Illinois, showing major cities and roadsThe third division is southern Illinois, comprising the area south of U.S. Route 50, and including Little Egypt, near the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. This region can be distinguished from the other two by its warmer climate, different mix of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged topography (the southern tip is unglaciated with the remainder glaciated during the Illinoian Age and earlier ages), as well as small-scale oil deposits and coal mining. The area is a little more populated than the central part of the state with the population centered in two areas. First, the Illinois suburbs of St. Louis comprise the second most populous metropolitan area in Illinois with nearly 600,000 inhabitants, and are known collectively as the Metro-East. Second, the Carbondale, Marion, West Frankfort, Herrin, Murphysboro area, is home to around 200,000 residents. [Nelson 1978]

The region outside of the Chicago Metropolitan area is often described as "downstate Illinois". However, residents of central and southern Illinois view their regions as geographically and culturally distinct, and do not necessarily use this term.

In extreme northwestern Illinois, the Driftless Zone, a region of unglaciated and therefore higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state. Charles Mound, located in this region, is the state's highest natural elevation above sea level at 1,235 feet (376 m). The highest true elevation in Illinois is the Sears Tower with an elevation at the top of its roof of approximately 2,030 feet (the elevation of Chicago is approximately 580 feet and the height of the roof is approximately 1450 feet).

The floodplain on the Mississippi River from Alton to the Kaskaskia River is the American Bottom, and is the site of the ancient city of Cahokia. It was a region of early French settlement, as well as the site of the first state capital, at Kaskaskia which is separated from the rest of the state by the Mississippi River. [Nelson (1978); Horsley (1986)]

Illinois counties, List of Illinois county name etymologies

Because of its nearly 400 mile length and mid-continental situation, Illinois has a widely varying climate. Monthly average temperatures range from a high of 88 °F in the south during the month of August to a low of 10 °F in the northwest during February. Average yearly precipitation for Illinois varies from just over 48 inches at the southern tip to around 35 inches in the northern portion of the state. Normal annual snowfall exceeds 38 inches in Chicagoland due to lake effect snow, while the south normally receives less than 14 inches.[4] The highest temperature recorded in Illinois was 117 °F, recorded on July 14, 1954, at East St. Louis, while the lowest temperature was -36 °F, recorded on January 5, 1999, at Congerville.[5] [Nelson (1978); Horsley (1986)]

Illinois averages around 50 days of thunderstorm activity a year which put it at near average for number of thunderstorm days for the United States. Illinois is vulnerable to tornadoes with an average of 35 occurring annually, which puts much of the state at around 5 tornaodes per 10,000 square miles annually.[6]Some of the most devastating tornadoes in United States history have been in Illinois.

See also: List of Illinois state parks
Illinois has numerous museums. For example, the Burpee Museum of Natural History in Rockford which features the dinosaur fossil Jane the Rockford T-Rex.

The Illinois state park system began in 1908 with what is now Fort Massac State Park becoming the first park in a system encompassing over 60 parks and about the same number of recreational and wildlife areas.

Areas under the protection and control of the National Park Service include:

Illinois and Michigan Canal National Heritage Corridor near Lockport
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail
Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield
Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail
Trail of Tears National Historic Trail

Evening sky over a grain elevator west of ChampaignMain article: History of Illinois

Cahokia, the urban center of the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. That civilization vanished circa AD 1400–1500 for unknown reasons. The next major power in the region was the Illiniwek Confederation, or Illini, a political alliance among several tribes. The Illiniwek gave Illinois its name. The Illini suffered in the seventeenth century as Iroquois expansion forced them to compete with several tribes for land. The Illini were replaced by the Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes. [Nelson 1978]

European exploration
French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. As a result of their exploration, Illinois was part of the French empire until 1763, when it passed to the British as a result of the French and Indian War. George Rogers Clark claimed the Illinois Country for the Commonwealth of Virginia during his military campaigns there in 1778. The area was ceded to the new United States in 1783 and became part of the Northwest Territory. [Biles (2005)]

19th century
Historical populations
year Population


1800 2,458
1810 12,282
1820 55,211
1830 157,445
1840 476,183
1850 851,470
1860 1,711,951
1870 2,539,891
1880 3,077,871
1890 3,826,352
1900 4,821,550
1910 5,638,591
1920 6,485,280
1930 7,630,654
1940 7,897,241
1950 8,712,176
1960 10,081,158
1970 11,113,976
1980 11,426,518
1990 11,430,602
2000 12,419,293
The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809, with its capital at Kaskaskia. In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. At the last minute, the state's northern border was controversially moved 50 miles north from the southern tip of Lake Michigan to its current location to include the port of Chicago. The capital remained at Kaskaskia, but in 1819 it was decided to move the capital up the Kaskaskia River to Vandalia. Early U.S. settlement began in the southern part of the state and quickly spread northward, driving out the native residents. With the 1832 Black Hawk War, the last native tribes were driven out of northern Illinois.

The winter of 1830-1831 is called the "Winter of the Deep Snow". A sudden, deep snowfall blanketed the state, making travel impossible for the rest of the winter. Travelers lucky enough to find shelter had to stay where they were. Many others perished. Several severe winters followed, including the "Winter of the Sudden Freeze". On December 20, 1836, a fast-moving cold front passed through, freezing puddles in minutes and killing many travelers who could not reach shelter. The adverse weather resulted in crop failures in the northern part of the state. The southern part of the state shipped food north and this may have contributed to its name: "Egypt", after the Biblical story of Joseph in Egypt supplying grain to his brothers.[7]

Illinois is known as the "Land of Lincoln" because it is here that the 16th President spent most of his life, practicing law and living in Springfield. In 1837, with Lincoln's support and urging, the General Assembly voted to move the capital to Springfield. As early as 1840, Illinois was called the "Sucker State". Illinois was not a strong anti-slavery state. In 1853, led by Democrat John A. Logan, the legislature passed a Black Code designed to keep free blacks out of the state.

Chicago gained prominence as a Great Lakes port and then as an Illinois and Michigan Canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. By 1857, Chicago was Illinois' largest city. [Biles (2005)]

Further information: History of Chicago

Civil War
Main article: Illinois in the Civil War
During the Civil War, over 250,000 Illinois men served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Beginning with President Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments, which were numbered from the 7th IL to the 156th IL. Seventeen cavalry regiments were also gathered, as well as two light artillery regiments.

Twentieth century
In the 20th century, Illinois emerged as one of the most important states in the union with a population of nearly 5 million. By the end of the century, the population would reach 12.4 million. The Century of Progress world's fair was held at Chicago in 1933. Oil strikes in Marion County lead to a boom in 1937, and, by 1939, Illinois ranked 4th in U.S. oil production.

Following World War II, Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago, activated the first experimental nuclear power generating system in United States in 1957. By 1960, the first privately financed nuclear plant in United States, Dresden 1, was dedicated near Morris. Chicago became an ocean port with the opening of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, in 1959. The seaway and the Illinois Waterway connected Chicago to both the Mississippi River and the Atlantic Ocean. In 1960, Ray Kroc opened the first McDonald's franchise in Des Plaines.

In 1970, the state's sixth constitutional convention authored a new constitution to replace the 1870 version. It was ratified in December. The first Farm Aid concert was held in Champaign to benefit American farmers, in 1985. The worst upper Mississippi River flood of the century, the Great Flood of 1993, inundated many towns and thousands of acres of farmland. [Biles (2005)]

Illinois Population Density MapAs of 2005, Illinois has an estimated population of 12,763,371, which is an increase of 343,724, or 2.8%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 406,425 people (that is 959,470 births minus 553,045 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 63,011 people out of the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a increase of 328,020 people, and migration within the country produced a loss of 391,031 people.[8] As of 2004 there were 1,682,900 foreign-born (13.3%).[9]

At the northern edge of the state on Lake Michigan lies Chicago, the nation's third largest city. In 2000, 23.3% of the population lived in the city of Chicago, 43.3% in Cook County and 65.6% in Illinois's part of Chicagoland, the leading industrial and transportation center in the region, which includes Will, DuPage, Kane, and Lake Counties as well as Cook County. The rest of the population lives in the smaller cities and in the rural areas that dot the state's plains. According to the 2000 census, the state population center was 41.278216° N 88.380238° W in Grundy County northeast of Mazon.[10] [Biles (2005); Nelson (1978); Horsley (1986)]

Demographics of Illinois (csv)
By race White Black AIAN Asian NHPI
AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native - NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
2000 (total population) 80.71% 15.73% 0.62% 3.84% 0.11%
2000 (hispanic only) 11.78% 0.35% 0.19% 0.08% 0.04%
2005 (total population) 80.34% 15.63% 0.62% 4.45% 0.11%
2005 (hispanic only) 13.72% 0.39% 0.20% 0.09% 0.04%
Growth 2000-2005 (total population) 2.30% 2.07% 3.74% 19.16% 10.13%
Growth 2000-2005 (non-hispanic only) -0.68% 1.81% 0.91% 19.36% 10.18%
Growth 2000-2005 (hispanic only) 19.75% 13.28% 10.14% 9.96% 10.06%

Religious affiliation[11]
Christian: 80%
Protestant: 49%
Baptist: 12%
Lutheran: 7%
Methodist: 7%
Presbyterian: 3%
Other/general Protestant: 20%
Roman Catholic: 30%
Other Christian: 1%
Other religions: 4%
Non-religious: 16%
The top five ancestry groups in Illinois are: German American (19.6%), African American (15.1%), Irish American (12.2%), Mexican American (9.2%), and Polish-American (7.5%). Nearly three in ten whites in Illinois claimed at least partial German ancestry on the Census. Blacks are present in large numbers in the city of Chicago, East St. Louis, and the southern tip of the state. Residents citing American and British ancestry are especially concentrated in the southeastern part of the state. Metropolitan Chicago has the greatest numbers of people of Irish, Mexican, and Polish ancestry.

7.1% of Illinois' population was reported as under age 5, 26.1% under age 18, and 12.1% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51% of the population.[12] [Horsley (1986)]

Protestants are the largest religious group in Illinois. However, Illinois is not as heavily Protestant as neighboring states are. Roman Catholics, who are heavily concentrated in and around Chicago, account for 30% of the population.

Metro Chicago is home to the 3rd largest Jewish population in the United States.[Biles (2005)]

Main article: Economy of Illinois
The 2004 total gross state product for Illinois was nearly US$522 billion,[13] placing it 5th in the nation. The 2004 per capita income was US$34,721.[14]

Illinois' agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products, and wheat. Illinois' universities are actively researching alternative agricultural products as alternative crops. Its industrial outputs are machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, petroleum and coal.

Illinois' state income tax is calculated by multiplying net income by a flat rate, currently 3%.[15] There are two rates for state sales tax: 6.25% for general merchandise and 1% for qualifying food, drugs and medical appliances.[16] The property tax is the largest single tax in Illinois, and is the major source of tax revenue for local government taxing districts. The property tax is a local—not state—tax, imposed by local government taxing districts which include counties, townships, municipalities, school districts, and special taxing districts. The property tax in Illinois is imposed only on real property. [Biles (2005); Nelson (1978); Horsley (1986)]

Byron Nuclear Generating Station, in Ogle County.It could be said that nuclear power began in Illinois with the Chicago Pile-1, the world's first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction in the world's first nuclear reactor, built on a squash court under the abandoned west stands of the Alonzo Stagg Field stadium on the University of Chicago campus. As of 2006, Illinois has 6 Nuclear power plants which contain 11 electricity producing reactors. As of January 1, 2005 Illinois ranked 1st among the 31 States with nuclear capacity.[17]

Illinois is a leading refiner of petroleum in the American Midwest, with a combined crude oil distillation capacity of nearly 0.9 million barrels per day. However, Illinois has very limited crude oil proved reserves that account for less than 1% of U.S. crude oil proved reserves. Residential heating is 81% natural gas compared to less than 1% heating oil.[18]

About 68% of Illinois has coal-bearing strata of the Pennsylvanian geologic period. According to the Illinois State Geological Survey, 211 billion tons of bituminous coal are estimated to lie under the surface, having a total heating value greater than the estimated oil deposits in the Arabian Peninsula.[19] However, this coal has a high sulfur content, which requires special equipment to reduce air pollution. [Biles (2005); Nelson (1978); Horsley (1986)]

The sample version of the current Illinois passenger license plate introduced in 2001.Because of its central location and its proximity to the Rust Belt and Grain Belt, Illinois is a national crossroads and transportation hub, with Chicago being the economic center of it all (air, road, rail, and water transport).

AIR - O'Hare International Airport (ORD) is one of the busiest airports in the world and is a major airport serving numerous domestic and international destinations. It is a hub for United Airlines and American Airlines, and a major airport expansion project is currently underway. Midway Airport (MDW) is the secondary airport serving metro Chicago. Bellville Mid-America Airport (BLV) serves the St Louis metro area (metro-east suburbs in Illinois).

RAIL - Illinois has an extensive rail network transporting both passengers and freight. Chicago is a national Amtrak hub and in-state passengers are served by Amtrak's Illinois Service featuring the Chicago to Carbondale Illini and Chicago to Quincy Illinois Zephyr.

ROAD - Major U.S. Interstate highways crossing the state include: I-24, I-39, I-55, I-57, I-64, I-70, I-72, I-74, I-80, I-88, I-90, and I-94. Illinois carries the distinction of having the most primary (2-digit) Interstates pass through it among the 50 states. In 2005, there were 1,355 traffic deaths on Illinois roadways, the lowest in more than 60 years.[20] [Biles (2005); Nelson (1978); Horsley (1986)]

WATER - In addition to the states rail lines, the Mississippi River and Illinois River provide major routes for the states agricultural interests. Lake Michigan connects Chicago & the rest of Illinois to all waterways east.

List of Illinois Routes

Law and government
Illinois Government
Governor of Illinois Rod Blagojevich (D)
Lieutenant Governor of Illinois: Pat Quinn (D)
Attorney General of Illinois: Lisa Madigan (D)
Secretary of State of Illinois: Jesse White (D)
Comptroller of Illinois: Daniel Hynes (D)
Treasurer of Illinois: Judy Baar Topinka (R)
Senior United States Senator: Richard J. Durbin (D)
Junior United States Senator: Barack Obama (D)
Main article: Government of Illinois
See also: 2006 Election for statewide offices in the State of Illinois
The state government of Illinois is modeled after the United States federal government with adaptations originating from traditions cultivated during the state's frontier era. As codified in the state constitution, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the Governor of Illinois. Legislative functions are given to the Illinois General Assembly, composed of the 118-member Illinois House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois Senate. The judiciary is comprised of the Supreme Court of Illinois, which oversees the lower appellate and circuit courts.[3]

The dome on the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield is taller than the dome on the United States Capitol.Illinois has traditionally been a major battleground between the Republican Party and the Democratic Party . Since 1992, it has gradually become more Democratic at the national and state level. It is the most Democratic state in the Midwest. Illinois voted for Democratic presidential candidates in the last four elections. John Kerry easily won the state's 21 electoral votes in 2004 by a margin of 11 percentage points with 54.8% of the vote. Traditionally, the central cities, especially Cook and St. Clair counties, have been Democratic strongholds, while the suburbs of Chicago have been historically Republican. However, the collar counties of Lake and DuPage, while still mostly Republican, have been trending towards the Democrats. Small cities and towns are typically Republican strongholds. Rural districts in the northern third of the state have historically been Libertarian Republican; those in the middle third mixed, and those in Egypt (the southern third of the state)Paleoconservative,Republican.

Politics in the state (and especially in Chicago) has been famous for over a century for high visibility corruption cases, as well as for crusading reformers such as governors Adlai Stevenson (Dem) and James Thompson (GOP). In 2006, former Governor George Ryan (GOP) was convicted of racketeering and bribery. In the late 20th century Congressman Dan Rostenkowski (Dem) was imprisoned for mail fraud; former governor and federal judge Otto Kerner, Jr. (Dem.) was imprisoned for bribery; and State Auditor of Public Accounts (Comptroller) Orville Hodge (GOP) was imprisoned for embezzlement. In 1912 William Lorimer, the GOP boss of Chicago, was expelled from the U.S. Senate for bribery, and in 1921 Governor Len Small (GOP) was found to have defrauded the state of a million dollars.[21]

Largest cities
Chicago's skyline
See also: List of cities in Illinois and List of towns and villages in Illinois
Chicago is the largest city in the state and the third most populous city in the United States. Cities over 100,000 include: Aurora, the largest suburb of Chicago and second largest city in Illinois. Rockford, the third largest city in Illinois, located in north-central Illinois. Naperville, a Chicago suburb and fourth largest city in the state. Elgin, a suburb northwest of Chicago. Joliet, a city southwest of Chicago. Peoria, the largest city on the Illinois river and Springfield, the state capital of Illinois.

Rockefeller Chapel, constructed in 1928, is the tallest structure on the University of Chicago campus.
[edit] Illinois State Board of Education
Main article: Illinois State Board of Education
The Illinois State Board of Education or ISBE, autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, administers public education in the state. Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with the Illinois School Report Card. The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies.

Primary and secondary schools
See also: List of school districts in Illinois and List of high schools in Illinois
Education is compulsory from kindergarten through the twelfth grade in Illinois, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district.

Colleges and universities
The main quad at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.See also: List of colleges and universities in Illinois
While many students enter the military or join the workforce directly from high school, students have the option of applying to colleges and universities in Illinois. Notable Illinois institutions of higher education include Northwestern University, the University of Chicago, and the several branches of the University of Illinois system. Illinois is also home to 49 colleges in the Illinois Community College System.

Professional sports teams
Soldier Field following renovation.See also: List of professional sports teams in Illinois
Because of its large and diverse population, Chicago is the focus of most professional sports in Illinois. It is the home to 15 different professional sports teams.

The Chicago Cubs of the National League play in the second-oldest major league stadium and are famous as "lovable losers" whose fans are nevertheless famously dedicated. The Chicago White Sox of the American League won the World Series championship in 2005, their first since 1917. The Chicago Bears football team has won 9 total league titles, including 8 NFL Championships and Super Bowl XX. The Chicago Bulls of the NBA are one of the most recognized basketball teams in the world, thanks to the heroics of a player often cited as the best ever, Michael Jordan, who led the team to six NBA championships in eight seasons in the 1990s. The Chicago Blackhawks of the NHL began playing in 1926 as a member of the Original Six and have won several Stanley Cups. The Chicago Fire soccer club are members of MLS and are one of the league's most successful and best-supported since its founding in 1997, winning one league and four US Open Cups in that timespan.

Chicago sports teams, like the Bulls, often carry a national following. However, downstate fans are sometimes loyal to adjacent sports markets, such as St. Louis.

Miscellaneous topics
Illinois Symbols[2]
State animal: White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
State amphibian: Eastern Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum)
State bird: Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)
State capital: Springfield
State dance: Square dance
State fish: Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)
State flower: Purple violet (Viola sororia)
State fossil: Tully Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium)
State insect: Monarch Butterfly
State mineral: Fluorite
State motto: "State sovereignty, national union"
State Nickname: The Prairie State
State prairie grass: Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii)
State reptile: Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta)
State slogan: "Land of Lincoln"
State snack: Popcorn
State soil: Drummer Silty Clay Loam
State song: "Illinois"
State tree: White oak (Quercus alba)
The USS Illinois was named in honor of this state.

Selected list of notable residents
Main article: List of people from Illinois
Jane Addams, pioneer social worker, founded Hull House
John Belushi, early member of The Second City and Jim Belushi, both born in Chicago but grew up in Wheaton;
Joseph Gurney Cannon longtime member of Congress and Speaker in early 20th century
John Deere, farm machinery pioneer. Founded Deere & Company in Moline
Dennis Hastert, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
Hugh Hefner, creator of Playboy magazine, which he based in Chicago
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President, built his career in Springfield
Richard Durbin, currently the state's senior senator and United States Senate Minority Whip
Barack Obama, currently the junior Senator
Ronald Reagan, the 40th President; born in Tampico, attended Eureka College
Donald Rumsfeld, current U.S. Secretary of Defense; born in Evanston
Shel Silverstein, children's author; born and raised in Chicago
Adlai E. Stevenson, elected Vice President, 1892
Adlai Stevenson II, governor, 1952 and 1956 Presidential candidate
Oprah Winfrey, talk show host, lives in Streeterville neighborhood of Chicago
Hillary Rodham Clinton, former First Lady of the United States, current junior senator from New York; born and raised in Park Ridge, outside Chicago
Richard Marx, pop-rock singer-songwriter


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